Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 11th Digest Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

11th English Digest Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly Textbook Questions and Answers

Read the following statements and mark those that apply to you.

Question 1.
(i) I make friends easily.
(ii) I wish to be friends with someone but my friendship is rejected.
(iii) Someone has extended a hand of friendship towards me and I have not accepted it.
(iv) I have a large group of friends but no best buddy.
(v) I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.
(vi) I have cordial relationships with all but I cannot connect with anyone.
Answer:
(i) I make friends easily.
(iv) I have a large group of friends but no best buddy.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Complete the following web diagram.

Question (i)
Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly 2

Question (ii)
If you see someone lonely or sad you will –
(a) try to cheer the person by talking something pleasant.
(b) try to distract the person’s attention by doing some activity together.
(c) discuss the problem if the person wants to, give a patient hearing and also try to suggest some possible solutions.

(A1)

Question (i)
Jo’s decision to make friends with the lonely boy next door proves to be a good one. Elaborate. You may begin with ‘Jo was a bold, friendly and warm person…”
Answer:
Jo was bold, friendly and warm person who observed the boy next door closely and came to the conclusion that he was hungry for friends and fun. She was sad for the boy and felt it her neighborly duty to help the boy come out of his loneliness in her own way. She took a quick decision to catch the boys attention by throwing snowballs towards the window from where he was peeping.

She took the initiative to start an immediate conversation which was well-received by the boy. He invited her home and Jo readily accepted. Jo’s friendliness made the boy feel comfortable and he enjoyed Jo’s way of talking, her humour and most importantly, her companionship. He showed her his library and together they had a gala time which he never had before.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question (ii)
Complete the following statements. (Answers are given directly in bold)
Answer:

  1. To Jo the fine house seemed like an enchanted house.
  2. Jo swept a path around the garden for Beth to walk in when the sun came out.
  3. Jo entered the old stone house carrying her broom.
  4. In order to tidy the room, Jo had whisked things into place.

Question (iii)
Bring out the contrast between the two houses with the help of the following points:
Answer:

House of March House of Laurence
1. Old, brown house

2. Rather bare and shabby

3. Children played all around

4. A lively household having four girls and a loving mother

(a) Stately stone mansion

(b) Stately stone mansion

(c) Well kept grounds

(d) All quiet, curtain down at the lower windows
No motherly face smiled at the windows

(A2)

Question 1.
The traits of the characters you meet in the extract are jumbled. Sort them out and write them in the appropriate columns.
(Shy, bold, gruff, friendly, withdrawn, perceptive, empathetic, playful, lonely, happy, gentlemanly, frank, mature, dull, sharp, adventurous.)

Jo Laurie Grandpa
adventurous dull gruff
bold lonely withdrawn
playful gentlemanly frank
happy shy sharp
friendly mature
empathetic sharp
perceptive friendly

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

(A3)

Question (i)
Write down in your own words the way Laurie confirmed the names of the March sisters.
Answer:
The March family sometimes forgot to put the curtain down at the window and that helped Laurie, their neighbor, to observe minutely inside the March household. The sisters often call one another and lonely Laurie enjoys watching them having good time. That’s how he came to know that Beth is the one who is generally a home-bird but whenever she goes out, she carries a basket with her. Amy’s curly hair and Meg’s pretty face has also caught his attention.

Question (ii)
Give a brief account of the interaction between Grandpa and Jo.
Answer:
Grandpa and Jo had an interesting interaction as Jo had come out of her initial fear after having a closer look at him. Grandpa had overheard Jo’s comments on his portrait and Jo did not even try to deny any one of them. This pleased Grandpa immensely and he remembered Jo’s grandfather who was similarly brave and honest.

Jo frankly told Grandpa about the problem Laurie was facing because of his loneliness. She showed her concern and expressed the March sisters’ eagerness to help Laurie. They started talking informally about Hemmel family, Jo’s mother and he also invited Jo to join for tea which Jo courteously accepted. This interaction made Jo very satisfied as she could find out how good their neighbor was.

(A4)

Question (i)
Find proverbs, maxims and idioms related to ‘friendship’.
Answer:

  1. Birds of a feather flock together.
  2. A friend in need is a friend in deed.
  3. Friendship is love with understanding.
  4. To get on like a house on fire (idiom).
  5. Like two peas in a pod (idiom).

Question (ii)
The Extract deals with the atmosphere of two homes. Collect the words associated with –

  1. Home
  2. Library
  3. Garden

Answer:

  1. Home: old, brown, bare, shabby, stately stone mansion, comfort, luxury, big coach house, lovely things, rich curtains, lifeless, lawn, enchanted, hidden glories, full of splendour.
  2. Library: books, pictures, statues, little cabinets, coins, sleepy hollow chairs, queer tables, quaint tiles, open fireplace, bronzes.
  3. Garden: large, low hedge, vines, flowers.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

(A5)

Change into indirect speech.

Question (a)
“Do you like your school?” asked the boy. “Don’t go to school I’m a businessman – girl, I mean”, answered Jo.
Answer:
The boy wanted to know whether she (Jo) liked school to which Jo answered quite emphatically that she did not go to school. She further added that she was a businessman and jovially corrected the gender.

Question (b)
Jo flourished her broom as she called out… “How do you do? Are you sick?
Laurie opened the window and croaked out as hoarsely as a raven…
“Better, thank you. I’ve had a bad cold, and been shut up a week.”
Answer:
Flourishing her broom Jo asked Laufie about his well-being and enquired whether he was sick. Laurie opened the window and croaked out as hoarsely as a raven thanking Jo for her concern and informed her that he was feeling better. He further added that he had been shut up a week as he had a bad cold.

Question (c)
“The pretty one is Meg, and the curly-haired one is Amy, I believe?” – Laurie.
“How did you find that out?” – Jo.
Answer:
Laurie wanted to confirm from Jo whether the pretty one was Meg and the curly-haired was Amy. With surprise in her voice Jo enquired how he(Laurie) had found that out.

Question (d)
“I’m not afraid of anything”, returned Jo with a toss of the head.
“I don’t believe you are !” exclaimed the boy.
Answer:
With a toss of the head Jo emphatically told that she was not afraid of anything. The boy was not surprised at her claim and agreed with her completely.

(A6)

Question (i)
Narrate in 100 words an incident, that illustrates the way a friend of yours ‘made you feel happy and accepted’, at some point in your life.
Answer:
That was my first day at school. I was just five years old. When my parents left me in school and I entered the classroom. I felt so lonely that I was about to cry. I was looking around, desperately trying to find out a known or a friendly face to talk to. Suddenly, there was a pat on my back and I saw a girl standing behind me.

She held my hand and took me to the bench where she was sitting. We became friends instantly. Till today we are the best friends. I shall be very grateful to her for her acceptance of me on the very first day at school.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question (ii)
Give reasons, for us being reluctant to make friends with some strangers, but being comfortable with some, even after meeting them for the first time.
Answer:
Strangers are always mysteries for us. But some people have the inherent simplicity which instantly attract us towards them and we long to be friends with them. We feel comfortable in their company. But there is another category of people who have the attention-catching technique of blowing their own trumpets. It is difficult to carry on normal conversation with them as they are obsessed with their ownselves.

Question (iii)
Are friends different from neighbors? Are you friends with your neighbors? Give examples and write.
Answer:
It is not necessary to have one’s friend as one’s neighbor always. If it happens that way, then one is lucky. Friendship does not depend on the residence of a person and it can be different from the friendly relation one can have with one’s neighbor.

I am very fortunate to have a very friendly family as our neighbor. We are always there for one another at the hour of need as well as sharing happiness. For example, the owner of the apartment is a doctor and he is helping us with useful advices whenever anyone in our family falls sick. My mother is a teacher and she guides the children of our neighbor with their difficulties in studies. A good neighbor is always an asset.

Question (iv)
Make a note about how people amused themselves in earlier times without TV, internet or social media for entertainment.
Answer:
In earlier times when TV, internet and social media did not make people slaves of these sorts of entertainments, people used to socialize a lot. They used to meet their friends and relatives, talk to them over a telephone, make enquirers about each other’s well-beings and exchange ideas. The human connections were more and people used to share their joys and sorrows. Gone are those days of personal relationships which have been taken over by the modern technology enslaving people.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

(A7)

Question 1.
Use your imagination and extend the story in about 100 to 130 words.
Answer:
Jo had a nice time with Laurie and his grandpa having tea and snacks which she enjoyed thoroughly. Both of them were very interesting characters, nice to talk to and Jo had an entertaining evening. She was excited to be acquainted with a friendly neighbor which she had always longed for. She was happy to go back home with so much of positive feelings about their neighbor who had been a mystery for her and her family.

Her entire family always felt sad for the lonely boy Laurie but nobody could approach him for helping him. She was extremely delighted to know Laurie and his grandpa who were courteous enough to invite her for tea. She was in a hurry to share her excitement with her family. “Ah! what a pleasant day it was !” she whispered.

(A8) Project:

If you are social, like to meet new people, can emphatise and connect with peole easily, make a list of careers available to you and write in brief about them. For example: Human Resource Development or HRD.

Yuvakbharati English 11th Digest Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Jo doesn’t want to be a pussy-cat because –
Answer:
Pussy cat symbolises lethargy. Jo was always on the look out for excitements and thrills. She was an adventurous girl who does not want to idle away her time sleeping like a pussy-cat and enjoy the warmth of the fireplace on a cold winter afternoon. She would rather find out something interesting to spend her time.

Question 2.
Guess the meaning of‘hidden glories’ in the context of the mansion mentioned in the story.
Answer:
The expression has been used in the context of the mansion where Laurie lives. It has glimpses of lovely things and a look of an enchanted house, which probably hides lots of attractions inside.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 3.
Explain: “That boy is suffering for society and fun”.
Answer:
The young boy Laurie is lonely and longs for having fun with friends of his age-group, play with them and enjoy life the way a boy of his age does. The absence of company of friends and fun has made him dull which is affecting him like a disease.

Question 4.
Discuss ‘as dull as tombs’ and name the figure of speech.
Answer:
The figure of speech is ‘Simile’ as the dullness of the house is directly compared to the serious and dull atmosphere in a tomb. The boy meant by the expression that his house is very boring.

Question 5.
Complete the sentence: ‘a little gentleman’ means.
Answer:
The young boy is referred to as ‘a little gentleman’ here as he talks and behaves decently with others. He has a good upbringing which has taught him to welcome guests at his place by presenting himself as well as his room tidily.

Question 6.
Make a list of gifts you give/receive to/from your friends.
The gifts I usually give/receive to/from my friends are:

  1. books
  2. cosmetics
  3. various food items
  4. accessories

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 7.
Complete the sentence in your own words : Hunger is related to food. Laurie is ‘hungry’ for –
Answer:
Laurie is a lonely young boy who is hungry for spending happy times both at home and with friends. He belongs to a rich family where he gets everything but suitable companions to have fun with. That is why he longs for food for his mind, that is, happy times with friends.

Question 8.
Laurie has
(i) _________
(ii) _________
(iii) _________
He doesn’t have
(i) __________
(ii) _________
(iii) _________
Answer:
Laurie
(i) a rich house filled with loneliness,
(ii) a kind but indifferent grandpa,
(iii) half a dozen servants and a tutor Mr. Brooke,

He doesn’t have
(i) his mother.
(ii) friends and companions,
(iii) any one to go out with.

Question 9.
Describe the effect of Laurie’s words on Jo.
Answer:
Jo started talking with Laurie frankly. Her words had lots of positive effects on Laurie as he was longing for exactly those things which Jo mentioned. For their first meeting, Jo was a bit blunt but Laurie liked her bluntness since he could recognize Jo’s sincerity and kindness hidden in those words. He started feeling comfortable in Jo’s company and enjoyed every bit of humorous description of Aunt March.

Question 10.
Find out what ‘good breeding’ means.
Answer:
‘Good breeding’ means that a person is well-behaved, polite, cultured and refined, which are the results of his upbringing, training as well as family atmosphere.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 11.
List some of the things that you need in order to be happy.
Answer:
Things that I need in order to be happy are –
(i) a supportive family and dependable friends.
(ii) hobbies to occupy myself during my free time.
(iii) a healthy life for me as well as my family members.
(iv) sufficient money earned from a satisfying career.

Question 12.
“A fellow can’t live on books” – Explain.
Answer:
A fellow, of course, cannot live on books though books are his emotional suppdrt and in many ways, his best friend. But he also needs someone, a companion, with whom he can share his feelings, fulfill his curiosities, have fun, etc. Human contact is a necessity in a person’s life since a few words, an exchange of ideas collected from the books can work wonders giving immense pleasure.

Question 13.
List the things that Jo notices in the portrait.
Answer:

  1. The gentleman in the portrait is not as handsome as her own grandfather.
  2. Though the gentleman is having a grim face, his kind eyes assure that there is nothing to be afraid of him.
  3. From his looks, it appears that he has tremendous will-power.

Question 14.
Find out the reason for Jo’s dismay.
Answer:
Jo loudly expressed her opinions on Laurie’s grandfather, while looking at his portrait. When she came to know that the gentleman had heard all her comments, she felt embarrassed. She felt uncomfortable to face the old gentleman and felt like running away.

Question 15.
Complete the sentence.
Answer:
In spite of Jo’s apprehensions, Grandpa is –

  1. having kinder eyes than what the painting shows.
  2. having a shy twinkle in his eyes which could lessen Jo’s fear.
  3. quite a friendly gentleman.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 16.
Discuss what Jo meant by –
(i) “only trying to be neighborly, Sir.”
(ii) seems a little lonely.
(iii) splendid Christmas present.
Answer:
(i) By saying, only trying to be neighborly, Sir”. Jo means she just wanted to be friendly with Laurie as he was her neighbor. She strongly felt that neighbors should know each other well.
(ii) Jo had observed Laurie now and again and she felt Laurie badly needed company since he always eagerly looked at his neighbors as if he was missing the fun they were having. To her, he appeared to be a lonely boy longing for enjoyment with friends.
(iii) Jo remembered the beautiful Christmas present that was sent to the March family by their neighbor Mr. Laurence and she felt it was a nice gesture by their neighbor.

Question 17.
Guess the meaning of the phrase “go on being neighborly” in the context.
Answer:
The phrase “go on being neighborly” in the context of the story means being friendly and helpful to the people living in one’s neighborhood.

Question 18.
Bring out the contrast in the lives of Jo and Laurie in a few lines.
Answer:
Jo belonged to a happy family who according to Laurie, had always good times together. Laurie was hungry to have company of friends and was a lonely boy. Jo had a loving mother who used to take care of her children but, Laurie was a motherless child who badly missed his mother. Jo was frank and innocent as any child of her age, whereas, Laurie’s loneliness was sickening for him.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 19.
I’m happy as a cricket here. (Name and explain the figure of speech)
Answer:
Simile. The happiness of Jo is directly compared to the happiness of the insect cricket.

Question 20.
Guess the meaning of the word ‘affair’ in the context.
Answer:
The word ‘affair’ in the context means ‘responsibility/matter’.

Comprehension:

Read the extract and complete the activities given below.

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Complete the table.
The traits of Jo and Laurie are jumbled. Sort them out and write them in appropriate columns.
(companionless, adventurous, empathetic, unenergetic) (Answers are given directly)
Answer:

Jo Laurie
adventurous companionless
empathetic unenergetic

Question 2.
Pick up the statements which confirm the theme of this passage.
(a) This passage is about Jo’s family not putting down the curtain.
(b) This passage is about Jo’s confirmation about Laurie’s loneliness.
(c) This passage is about Laurie’s habit of peeping at Jo’s family.
(d) This passage brings out the contrast in the lives of Jo and Laurie.
Answer:
(b) This passage is about Jo’s confirmation about Laurie’s loneliness.
(d) This passage brings out the contrast in the lives of Jo and Laurie.

Question 3.
Complete the sentences in column ‘A’ by matching them with the clues in column ‘B’

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Laurie inspite of being inquisitive asked no questions as ____________ . (a) Laurie seldom laughed aloud
2. Maid was surprised as ____________ . (b) That indicated his good breeding
3. Jo was elated ____________ . (c) As she was successful in making Laurie laugh
4. Jo found happiness in ____________ . (d) Reading books

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Laurie inspite of being inquisitive asked no questions as ____________ . (a) That indicated his good breeding
2. Maid was surprised as ____________ . (b) Laurie seldom laughed aloud
3. Jo was elated ____________ . (c) Reading books
4. Jo found happiness in ____________ . (d) As she was successful in making Laurie laugh

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 4.
Complete the following statement with four correct information from the extract.
Jo felt Laurie needs cheering up because:

  1. ________
  2. ________
  3. ________
  4. ________

Answer:

  1. He seemed lonely
  2. she was being neighborly
  3. She was social and empathetic
  4. Laurie looked expectantly at the sisters as they bad good time.

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
What were Jo’s queries to Laurie when they had talked for the first time?
Answer:
Jo wanted to know whether Laurie was sick, how he amused himself, his liking for books and if he had any visitor or not.

Question 2.
Mention any two outcomes of Jo’s visit to Laurie’s place.
Answer:
Jo’s visit made Laurie excited in the expectation of getting a companion which he never had. It also helped him to come out of his shyness and converse with Jo freely.

Question 3.
What was Jo’s suggestion to do away with Laurie’s loneliness.
Answer:
Jo assured Laurie that the curtain at her place would never be drawn so that Laurie can spend time looking at their activities. She also suggested that Laurie could come to their home and get himself entertained by. all the members of her family.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 4.
Why was Laurie’s grandfather impressed with Jo?
Answer:
Laurie’s grandfather was impressed by Jo’s spirited answers like her grandfather. He also appreciated that she was brave and honest as her grandfather was.

Question 5.
Mention any four changes that occurred in grandfather after meeting Jo.
Answer:

  1. Grandfather shed his strict countenance.
  2. He invited Jo to come over for tea.
  3. He promised to come over to meet Jo’s mother.
  4. He offered Jo his arm with old fashioned courtesy (indicating his gratitude for her neighborly arrival)

Inference / Interpretation / Analysis:

Question 1.
Complete the following statement.
Jo wanted to help Laurie because –
Answer:
Jo wanted to help Laurie because Laurie was unwell and he felt lonely as he had no one of his age at home. He deserved to have fun.
OR
Give reasons
“The big eyes brightened and the mouth began to smile”.
Answer:
The brightness in the eyes of Laurie and his smiling face are proofs of his happiness of having a possible friendship with Jo. When Jo threw snowballs at Laurie, he could feel Jo’s eagerness to talk to him. His loneliness has always made him unhappy and this gesture of Jo is a welcome change for him.

Question 2.
Complete the following sentence Mr. Laurie was a Tittle gentleman’ as …
Answer:
Mr. Laurie was a Tittle gentlemen’ because he was known for offering due respect to the guest who was coming to his place. He prepared himself decently by brushing his pate, pulling on a fresh set of clothing and making an attempt to clean his room. He followed the same routine for Jo’s arrival to his house also.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 3.
Point out the reason for Laurie’s minute observation of Jo’s family.
Answer:
Laurie spent his lonely time looking at the fun Jo’s family was having. He enjoyed watching each member of the family eagerly as he missed all those good times at his own home. He did not have his mother and he loved these girls in the company of their mother.

Question 4.
Mention the impact of Jo’s narratives on Laurie –
1. …………….
2. ……………..
Answer:
1. Laurie enjoyed her narrative immensely and he laughed out aloud.
2. He found a sudden merriment in otherwise dull mood owing to his illness.

Question 5.
Jo wasn’t scared of Laurie’s grandfather. Give evidence from the passage quoted to you.
Answer:
Jo was a bold girl who spoke her mind when it was needed. As she looked at Mr. Laurence’s portrait she found his eyes to be kind and grew fond of him instantly. She found him to be compassionate as she spoke to him and was confident that there was nothing to be scared of that gentleman.

Question 6.
Complete the boxes with information.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly 4

Personal Response:

Question 1.
“Girls are quiet and like to play nurse”. Do you Agree or Disagree? Justify your answer.
Answer:
I do not agree to the statement. There is no hard and fast rule about this impression about girls. There may be many boys who are very quiet and also good at nursing. It depends on the nature of a person whether he/ she is quiet, or noisy or talkative. The ability to nurse somebody is also dependant on the ability of a person irrespective of any gender.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 2.
Enlist the gifts that you receive from or give to your friends,
Answer:

  1. Books
  2. Wind Chimes
  3. Coffee mugs
  4. Photo frames

Question 3.
Give your suggestions in two sentences. How you will cheer up one of your lonely classmates.
Answer:
I can cheer up my lonely classmate by giving him/her company and involving in some activities together. We can sit together in the classroom, share our tiffins and invite him/her at my place on holidays.

Question 4.
What are you afraid of? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Generally I am not afraid of anything and a carefree type of person. But sometimes I worry about the loss of my near and dear ones as I am very attached to my family and friends.

Question 5.
What do you fear the most? why?
Answer:
As a student I fear examination especially the public exams as they decide the future course of action. There is always an element of uncertainty which brings in fear for exams among students.

Question 6.
How do you help your neighbor?
Answer:
I help my neighbor by making myself available when they need me. I also extend courtesy calls when I meet them.

Language Study:

Question (i)
The idea amused Jo who liked to do daring things
Answer:
Jo liked to do daring things and the idea amused her.

Question (ii)
The boy is suffering for society.
Answer:
The boy has been suffering for society.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question (iii)
What a cozy room this is! (Rewrite as a statement)
Answer:
This room is indeed very cozy.

Question (iv)
Laurie forgot his bashfulness and grew sociable. (Remove ‘and’ to make it a simple sentence)
Answer:
Forgetting his bashfulness Laurie grew sociable.

Question (v)
Her face was very friendly and her sharp voice unusually gentle.
(Use ‘not only but also’ and rewrite)
Answer:
Her face was not only very friendly but her sharp voice was unusually gentle also.

Question (vi)
She had been so simply taught that there was no nonsense in her head. (Use ‘too’)
Answer:
She had been too simply taught to have any nonsense in her head.

Question (vii)
Laurie enjoyed that immensely. (Use ‘enjoyment’and rewrite)
Answer:
Laurie’s enjoyment at that was immense.

Question (vii)
Jo liked his good breeding. (Frame a Wh-question to get the underlined part as an answer)
Answer:
What did Jo like in him?

Question (viii)
For a minute a wild desire to run away possessed her. (Change the voice)
Answer:
For a minute she was possessed by a wild desire to run away.

Question (ix)
He isn’t as handsome as my grandfather, but I like him. (Use ‘Though’)
Answer:
Though he isn’t as handsome as my grandfather, I like him.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question (x)
He seems a little lonely. (Frame a question to get the underlined part as answer)
Answer:
How does he seem?

Question (xi)
I shall come and see your mother. (Use a modal auxiliary showing ‘obligation’)
Answer:
I must come and see your mother.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Match the words in Column ‘A’ with their meanings in Column ‘B’.
Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. queer (a) bold
2. dismal (b) frail
3. daring (c) unusual
4. weak (d) dull

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. queer (c) unusual
2. dismal (d) dull
3. daring (a) bold
4. weak (b) frail

Question 2.
Mention any 4 adjectives that describe the traits of Jo’s character in the extract.
Answer:
Character
Jo

Adjectives

  1. Cheerful
  2. Empathetic
  3. Sociable
  4. Kind

Maharashtra Board Class 11 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.1 Being Neighborly

Question 3.
Give antonyms of the following words,

  1. rude
  2. splendid
  3. funny
  4. frank

Answer:

  1. polite
  2. ordinary
  3. serious

Question 4.
Give antonyms of the following using prefix.
Answer:
1. interesting × uninteresting
2. afraid × unafraid

Question 5.
Give one word for:
Answer:

  1. of a voice: low and rough – Gruff
  2. Lacking courage – Cowardly
  3. unpleasant – Dreadful
  4. very large or great – Tremendous

Glossary:

  1. shovel – spade
  2. mischievous – naughty
  3. to doze – to sleep lightly
  4. groves – group of trees
  5. hedge – row of bushes
  6. shabby – broken down/dilapidated
  7. stately – grand
  8. mansion – big house
  9. betokening – a sign of something
  10. glimpses – brief/faint looks
  11. frolicked – played fun games
  12. enchanted – attractive/ fascinating
  13. splendors – richness / luxury
  14. behold – look/see
  15. scandalizing – shocking /disgusting
  16. queer – odd/unusual/funny
  17. dismal – dull row – noise
  18. flutter – tremendous/full of
  19. pate – head
  20. parlor – sitting room
  21. briskly – quickly
  22. comforting – soothing
  23. sociable – friendly
  24. cozy – comfortable
  25. hearth – floor of fireplace
  26. whisked – removed
  27. beckoned – called
  28. twitching – shivering
  29. splendid – grand/superb
  30. bother- trouble/nuisance
  31. acquainted – be familiar
  32. blunt – frank/straightforward
  33. fidgety – restless
  34. poodle – a bread of dog
  35. immensely – vastly/very much
  36. tweaked – pulled
  37. elated – delighted
  38. trifle – little
  39. quaint – old-fashioned /unusual/attractive
  40. velour – woven fabric
  41. grim – ill-tempered/stern
  42. gruff – rough
  43. cowardly – fearful
  44. twinkle – shining
  45. dreadful – terrible
  46. courtesy – politeness
  47. colored up – embarrassed
  48. to wait on – act as an attendant to
  49. pranced – walked in an energetic way
  50. wicked – playfully mischievous
  51. affair – matter/responsibility
  52. good breeding – being raised well/ the result of good upbringing and training for good manners.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
__________ is the retention of information over time for the purpose of future action.
(A) Learning
(B) Memory
(C) Attention
Answer:
(B) Memory

Question 2.
__________ plays an important role in storage of memory.
(A) Hippocampus
(B) Amygdala
(C) Nervous system
Answer:
(A) Hippocampus

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
The term __________ memory was coined by Miller, Galanter, and Pribram around 1960.
(A) sensory
(B) working
(C) long-term
Answer:
(B) working

Question 4.
Visuo-spatial sketch pad (VSSP) is a/an __________ system.
(A) passive
(B) active
(C) non-functional
Answer:
(A) passive

Question 5.
Autobiographical memory is a type of __________ memory.
(A) implicit
(B) procedural
(C) declarative
Answer:
(C) declarative

Question 6.
In __________ recall, the material is recalled in the exact order in which it was presented.
(A) serial
(B) free
(C) definite
Answer:
(A) serial

Question 7.
__________ is one of the major ways of measuring memory.
(A) Rote learning
(B) Perception
(C) Relearning
Answer:
(C) Relearning

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 8.
__________ is the evidence for the organisation of long-term memory.
(A) Serial recall
(B) Tip of the tongue phenomenon
(C) Recognition
Answer:
(B) Tip of the tongue phenomenon

Question 9.
The pioneer of experiments on forgetting was __________
(A) Murdock
(B) Hermann Ebbinghaus
(C) Baddeley
Answer:
(B) Hermann Ebbinghaus

Question 10.
__________ interference means backward interference.
(A) Retroactive
(B) Proactive
(C) Passive
Answer:
(A) Retroactive

Question 11.
__________ is a Greek word meaning ‘of memory or related to memory.’
(A) Mnemonic
(B) Syllable
(C) LTM
Answer:
(A) Mnemonic

Question 12.
The final stage in POWER method is __________
(A) evaluate
(B) rethink
(C) relearn
Answer:
(B) rethink

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
i. LTM a. Conscious
ii. Explicit memory b. Less than one second
iii. Sensory memory c. Life-time memory
iv. Procedural memory d. Autobiographical events
e. Unconscious

Answer:

A B
i. LTM c. Life-time memory
ii. Explicit memory a. Conscious
iii. Sensory memory b. Less than one second
iv. Procedural memory e. Unconscious

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them. If true, explain why.

Question 1.
There are four basic processes of memory.
Answer:
False
Reason: There are three basic processes of memory, viz. encoding/acquisition, storage, and retrieval.

Question 2.
Short-term memory is known by many other terms.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Short-term or working memory was formerly known as ‘short term store’. It is also known as primary memory, immediate memory, operant memory, and provisional memory.

Question 3.
Baddeley called LTM the working bench of memory.
Answer:
False
Reason: Baddeley called STM the working bench of memory because STM is the most important stage of memory which is used most of the time for problem-solving.

Question 4.
Very often forgetting is due to unconscious processes like repression.
Answer:
True
Explanation: We subconsciously push unwanted thoughts and memories into our unconsciousness. It is one of the causes of forgetting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 5.
In recognition, a person has to retrieve information from LTM with no cues.
Answer:
False
Reason: In recognition, a person has to point out or recognize previously learned material that is presented to him in a different context.

Question 6.
There are five levels of motivated forgetting.
Answer:
False
Reason: There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.

Question 7.
The Method of Loci provides information about how context can affect memory.
Answer:
False
Reason: ‘The encoding specificity of memory’ provides information about how context can affect memory.

Question 8.
There are many techniques for improving memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Some of the techniques of improving memory are keyword method, encoding specificity, method of loci, mnemonic devices, practice, and rehearsal, minimizing interference, and POWER method.

1D. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Episodic memory, Semantic memory, Autobiographical memory, Implicit memory
Answer:
Implicit memory

2A. Explain the following concepts

Question 1.
Memory
Answer:
According to Tulving, ‘Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use that information in the present. Memory is the term given to the structure and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Central executive
Answer:
The central executive is a supervisor responsible for the coordination of the subsystems and the selection of reasoning and storage strategies in the working memory model given by Baddeley.

Question 3.
Episodic buffer
Answer:
The episodic buffer holds information that is not covered by all other slave systems in the working memory model given by Baddeley. It is a link between working memory and long-term memory.

Question 4.
Autobiographical memory
Answer:
Autobiographical memory refers to episodes recollected from an individual’s own life. It is a type of declarative memory.

Question 5.
Flashbulb memory
Answer:
Flashbulb memory is a highly detailed and exceptionally clear ‘snapshot’ of mostly a traumatic moment. It is a type of autobiographical memory. Flashbulb memories illustrate that exceptional memories are easily retrieved.

Question 6.
Relearning
Answer:
Relearning measures retention by measuring how much faster one learns a previously learned material after an interval of time, i.e. the same material is learned by the same subject based on the same learning criterion at two different occasions separated by time interval.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 7.
Forgetting
Answer:
Forgetting is the inability to remember the things which we want to remember at that moment. In other words, it is the failure to retrieve the material from our long-term memory which we have already stored.

2B. Compare and contrast.

Question 1.
Primacy effect and Recency effect
Answer:

  • The primacy effect occurs when the subject is able to recall items that are presented at the starting point of the list while the recency effect occurs when the subject is able to recall the items which are presented at the end. Free recall is effective in studying both these effects.
  • Both primary and recency effect was witnessed in Murdock’s experiment where subjects could prominently recall the first few and last few words from the list.
  • The primacy effect is the tendency to remember the first piece of information that we encounter in a better manner than the information presented later on. Conversely, the recency effect is the tendency to remember the most recent information in a better way.

Question 2.
Retroactive interference and Proactive interference
Answer:

  • Retroactive interference is the partial or complete forgetfulness of the previously learned material due to new memories that get mixed up with the older ones. On the other hand, proactive interference is the partial or complete forgetfulness of newly learned material due to the old material.
  • e.g. You studied Psychology yesterday and you studied Sociology today. If you forget Psychology due to the study of Sociology, it is due to retroactive interference while if you forget Sociology due to the study of Psychology, it is due to proactive interference.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory 2B Q2

3. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
State the types of human memory.
Answer:
The following flow chart explains types of human memory:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory 3 Q1

Question 2.
Explain the stages of memory.
Answer:

  • Environmental stimulus is received with the help of sense organs (sensory information store). This is where the memory is stored.
  • When we pay attention to the sensations, they are transferred to STM.
  • If information is rehearsed or appears frequently, then it is transferred to the LTM.
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory 3 Q2
  • After encountering any problem, we bring the information from LTM to STM so that it’s available for solving the problem.

Question 3.
What do you mean by magical number 7?
Answer:

  • The magical number 7+/-2 provides evidence for a limited capacity of the STM.
  • Most adults can store between five and nine items in the STM.
  • This idea was put forward by George Miller in 1956 and hence called 7 as a magical number.

Question 4.
What is the Phonological Loop (PL)?
Answer:

  • The Phonological loop is responsible for verbal information.
  • It has two subsystems as follows:
    • The phonological/acoustic store is a passive component of the phonological loop. It holds on verbal information. If not rehearsed, this information is forgotten.
    • The articulatory loop involves rehearsing and refreshing the information, just like our inner voice.

Question 5.
Explain Murdock’s experiment.
Answer:

  • Murdock performed experiments to check the recall.
  • He asked his subjects to learn a list of words. Later, their recall was tested by a free recall method.
  • Murdock found that the subjects could recall the first few (primacy effect) and the last few (recency effect) words prominently. But they got confused with the words in the middle part (serial position effect).

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

4. Short Notes.

Question 1.
visuospatial Sketch Pad (VSSP)
Answer:

  • VSSP handles visual and spatial information. It is responsible for storing speech-based information.
  • It has two components, viz. Phonological memory store and Articulatory Subvocal Rehearsal.
  • Phonological memory stores can hold traces of acoustic or speech-based information.
  • Articulatory Subvocal Rehearsal maintains material in short-term store. Prevention of articulatory rehearsal leads to rapid forgetting.

Question 2.
Recall
Answer:

  • The recall is the retrieval of information from LTM with few or no cues. Recall can be in the written form or it can be oral.
  • The recall involves remembering a fact, event, or object that is not currently physically present and requires the direct uncovering of information from memory.
  • The recall is of two types, viz. free recall and serial recall.
  • Free recall is a recollection of the items in the list without their serial order, e.g. we may listen to a lecture and later recall few important points irrespective of the order in which they were presented.
  • In serial recall, the material is recalled in the exact order in which it was presented, e.g. when you solve a mathematical problem, you are doing steps one after the other; so, it is serial recall.
  • The recall is greatly affected by emotions and motivation at the time of learning and retrieval.
  • Also, memory for the free recall is always better than if the subjects are asked to recall in a serial order.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
Hermann Ebbinghaus’s experiment
Answer:

  • The pioneer of experiments on forgetting was Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  • He created several lists of nonsense syllables and learned them. A nonsense syllable is a set of three alphabets where two on both the sides are consonants and the middle one is a vowel, e.g. NOM, GEX.
  • He checked his own recall at various periods of time.
  • He found out that he forgot 40% of whatever he had learned in the first 20 minutes.
  • After one hour, he forgot 60% while after nine hours he forgot a total of 70% of what he had learned.
  • After one day, he could recall only around 30% of the material he learned. After that, his recall was steady for a long period of time.
  • This experiment proved that we forget most of the things we learn in a short span.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Memory 4 Q3

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

1A. Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statements.

Question 1.
_____________ is related to money and money management.
(a) Production
(b) Marketing
(c) Finance
Answer:
(c) Finance

Question 2.
Finance is the management of _____________ affairs of the company.
(a) monetary
(b) marketing
(c) production
Answer:
(a) monetary

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 3.
Corporation finance deals with the acquisition and use of _____________ by business corporation.
(a) goods
(b) capital
(c) land
Answer:
(b) capital

Question 4.
Company has to pay _____________ to government.
(a) taxes
(b) dividend
(c) interest
Answer:
(a) taxes

Question 5.
_____________ refers to any kind of fixed assets.
(a) Authorised capital
(b) Issued capital
(c) Fixed capital
Answer:
(c) Fixed capital

Question 6.
_____________ refers to the excess of current assets over current liabilities.
(a) Working capital
(b) Paid-up capital
(c) Subscribed capital
Answer:
(a) Working capital

Question 7.
Manufacturing industries have to invest _____________ amount of funds to acquire fixed assets.
(a) huge
(b) less
(c) minimal
Answer:
(a) huge

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 8.
When the population is increasing at a high rate, certain manufacturers find this as an opportunity to _____________ business.
(a) close
(b) expand
(c) contract
Answer:
(b) expand

Question 9.
The sum of all _____________ is gross working capital.
(a) expenses
(b) current assets
(c) current liabilities
Answer:
(b) current assets

Question 10.
_____________ means mix up of various sources of funds in desired proportion.
(a) Capital budgeting
(b) Capital structure
(c) Capital goods
Answer:
(b) Capital structure

1B. Match the pairs:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 1B Q1
Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Capital budgeting (6) Investment decision
(b) Fixed capital (5) Fixed assets
(c) Working capital (1) Sum of current assets
(d) Capital structure (9) Mix up various sources of funds
(e) Corporate finance (2) Deals with acquisition and use of capital

1C. Write a word or term or a phrase that can substitute each of the following statements:

Question 1.
A key determinant of the success of any business function.
Answer:
Finance

Question 2.
The decision of the finance manager ensures that the firm is well-capitalized.
Answer:
Financing decision

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 3.
The decision of the finance manager to deploy the funds in a systematic manner.
Answer:
Investment decision

Question 4.
Capital is needed to acquire fixed assets that are used for a longer period of time.
Answer:
Fixed capital

Question 5.
The sum of current assets.
Answer:
Gross working capital

Question 6.
The excess of current assets over current liabilities.
Answer:
Networking capital

Question 7.
The process of converting raw material into finished goods.
Answer:
Production cycle

Question 8.
The boom and recession cycle in the economy.
Answer:
Economic Trend

Question 9.
The ratio of different sources of funds in the total capital.
Answer:
Capital Structure

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 10.
The internal source of financing.
Answer:
Retained earnings

1D. State whether the following statements are True or False:

Question 1.
Finance is related to money and money management.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
The business firm gives a green signal to the project only when it is profitable.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Corporate finance brings coordination between various business activities.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Fixed capital is also referred as circulating capital.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Working capital stays in the business almost permanently.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
The business will require huge funds if assets are acquired on a lease basis.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 7.
The business dealing in luxurious products will require a huge amount of working capital.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
A firm with large-scale operations will require more working capital.
Answer:
True

Question 9.
Liberal credit policy creates a problem of bad debt.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
Financial institutions and banks cater to the working capital requirement of the business.
Answer:
True

1E. Find the odd one.

Question 1.
Land and Building, Plant and Machinery, Cash.
Answer:
Cash

Question 2.
Debenture Capital, Equity Share Capital, Preference Share Capital.
Answer:
Debenture Capital

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 3.
Fixed Capital, Capital Structure, Working Capital.
Answer:
Capital Structure

1F. Complete the sentences.

Question 1.
Initial planning of capital requirement is made by _____________
Answer:
entrepreneur

Question 2.
When there is boom in economy, sales will _____________
Answer:
increase

Question 3.
The process of converting raw material into finished goods is called _____________
Answer:
production cycle

Question 4.
During recession period sales will _____________
Answer:
decrease

1G. Select the correct option from the bracket.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 1G Q1
(To have the right amount of capital, deploy funds in a systematic manner, fixed capital, working capital, capital structure, carry dividend at a fixed rate)
Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Financing decision (1) To have the right amount of capital
(b) Fixed capital (2) Longer period of time
(c) Investment decision (3) Deploy funds in a systematic manner
(d) Working capital (4) Circulating capital
(e) Combination of various sources of funds (5) capital structure

1H. Answer in one sentence.

Question 1.
Define corporate finance.
Answer:
Corporate finance deals with the raising and using of finance by a corporation.

Question 2.
What is fixed capital?
Answer:
Fixed capital is the capital that is used for buying fixed assets that are used for a longer period of time in the business eg. Capital for plant and machinery etc.

Question 3.
What is working capital?/Define working capital.
Answer:
Working capital is the capital that is used to carry out day-to-day business activities and takes into consideration all current assets of the company.
Eg: for building up inventories.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 4.
What is the production cycle?
Answer:
The process of converting raw material into finished goods is called the production cycle.

Question 5.
Define capital structure.
Answer:
Capital structure means to mix up various sources of funds in the desired proportion. To decide capital structure means to decide upon the ratio of different types of capital.

1I. Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentences.

Question 1.
Finance is needed to pay dividends to debenture holders.
Answer:
Finance is needed to pay interest to debenture holders.

Question 2.
When there is a recession in the economy sales will increase.
Answer:
When there is a boom in the economy sales will increase.

Question 3.
Share is an acknowledgment of a loan raised by the company.
Answer:
A debenture is an acknowledgment of a loan raised by a company.

Question 4.
Equity shares carry dividends at a fixed rate.
Answer:
Preference shares carry dividends at a fixed rate.

2. Explain the following terms/concepts.

Question 1.
Financing decision
Answer:
A financing decision is a right decision that is made by a finance manager of any corporation ensuring that the firm is well capitalized with the right combination of debt and equity, having access to multiple choices of sources of financing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 2.
Investment decision
Answer:
Investment decisions mean capital budgeting i.e. finding investments and deploying them successfully in the business for greater profits.

Question 3.
Fixed capital
Answer:
Fixed capital is the capital that is used for buying fixed assets that are used for a longer period of time in the business. These assets are not meant for. resale. Examples of fixed capital are capital used for purchasing land and building, furniture, plant, and machinery, etc.

Question 4.
Working Capital
Answer:
Working capital is the capital that is used to carry out day-to-day business activities. It takes into consideration all current assets, of the company. It also refers to ‘Gross Working Capital’.
Examples of working capital are

  • for building up inventories.
  • for financing receivables.
  • for covering day-to-day operating expenses.

3. Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

1. The management of ‘Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation’ wants to determine the size of working capital.

Question (a).
Being a public utility service provider will it need less working capital or more?
Answer:
MSRTC being a public utility service provider will need less working capital because of a continuous flow of cash from there, customers thus liabilities are taken care of.

Question (b).
Being a public utility service provider, will it need more fixed capital?
Answer:
Being a public utility service provider MSRTC will need a huge amount of funds to acquire fixed assets thus it will need more fixed capital.

Question (c).
Give one example of a public utility service that you come across on a day-to-day basis.
Answer:
The Indian Railways.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

2. A company is planning to enhance its production capacity and is evaluating the possibility of purchasing new machinery whose cost is ₹ 2 crore or has alternative of machinery available on a lease basis.

Question (a).
What type of asset is machinery?
Answer:
Machinery is a Fixed Asset.
A fixed asset may be held for 5, 10 or 20 years and more. But if assets are acquired on a lease or rental basis, then less amount of funds for fixed assets will be needed for business.

Question (b).
Capital used for the purchase of machinery is fixed capital or working capital.
Answer:
Capital used for the purchase of machinery is fixed capital.

Question (c).
Does the size of a business determine the fixed capital requirement?
Answer:
Yes. Where a business firm is set up to carry on large-scale operations, its fixed capital requirements are likely to be high.

4. Distinguish between the following.

Question 1.
Fixed Capital and Working Capital
Answer:

Points Fixed Capital Working Capital
1. Meaning Fixed capital refers to any kind of physical asset, a portion of total capital that is invested in fixed assets. Working capital refers to the sum of current assets or gross working capital.
2. Nature It stays in the business almost permanently. Working capital is circulatory capital. It keeps changing.
3. Purpose It is invested in fixed assets such as land, building, equipment, etc. Working capital is invested in short-term assets such as cash, account receivable, inventory, etc.
4. Sources Fixed capital funding can come from selling shares, debentures, bonds, long-term loans, etc. Working capital can be funded with short-term loans, deposits, trade credit, etc.
5. Objectives of investors Investors invest money in fixed capital hoping to make a future profit. Investors invest money in working capital for getting immediate returns.
6. Risk Investment in fixed capital implies more risk. Investment in working capital is less risky. Eg. Land, building, plant and machinery
7. Decisions Decisions relating to fixed capital investment are generally made by top-level management. Eg. Cash, bills receivable, inventories, cash at the bank Decisions relating to working capital needs are generally made by middle-level or lower-level management.

5. Answer in brief:

Question 1.
Define capital structure and state its components.
Answer:
Definition: R.H. Wessel “The long term sources of funds employed in a business enterprise.”
John H. Hampton “A firm’s capital structure is the relation between the debt and equity securities that make up the firm’s financing of its assets.” Thus, the term capital structure means security mix. It refers to the proportion of different securities raised by a firm for long-term finance.

Components/Parts of Capital Structure:
There are four basic components of capital structure. They are as follows:
(i) Equity Share Capital:

  • It is the basic source of financing activities of the business. Equity share capital is provided by equity shareholders.
  • They buy equity shares and help a business firm to raise necessary funds. They bear the ultimate risk associated with ownership.
  • Equity shares carry dividends at a fluctuating rate depending upon profit.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

(ii) Preference Share Capital:

  • Preference shares carry preferential rights as to payment of dividends and have priority over equity shares for return of capital when the company is liquidated.
  • These shares carry dividends at a fixed rate.
  • They enjoy limited voting rights.

(iii) Retained earnings:

  • It is an internal source of financing.
  • It is nothing but ploughing back of profit.

(iv) Borrowed capital: It comprises of the following:

  • Debentures: A debenture is an acknowledgment of a loan raised by the company. The company has to pay interest at an agreed rate.
  • Term Loan: Term loans are provided by the bank and other financial institutions. They carry fixed rate of interest.

Question 2.
State any four factors affecting fixed capital requirements?
Answer:
(i) Nature of business:

  • The nature of business certainly plays a role in determining fixed capital requirements. They need to invest a huge amount of money in fixed assets.
  • e.g. Rail, road, and other public utility services have large fixed investments.
  • Their working capital requirements are nominal because they supply services and not the product.
  • They deal in cash sales only.

(ii) Size of business:
The size of a business also affects fixed capital needs. A general rule applies that the bigger the business, the higher the need for fixed capital. The size of the firm, either in terms of its assets or sales, affects the need for fixed capital.

(iii) Scope of business:
Some business firms that manufacture the entire range of their production would require a huge investment in fixed capital. However, those companies that are labour intensive and who do not use the latest technology may require less fixed capital and vice versa.

(iv) Extent of lease or rent:
Companies who take their assets on a lease basis or on a rental basis will require less amount of funds for fixed assets. On the other side, firms that purchase assets will naturally require more fixed capital in the initial stages.

Question 3.
What are Corporate Finance and State’s two decisions which are basic of corporate finance?
OR
Write short note on Corporate Finance
Answer:
Corporate finance deals with the raising and using of finance by a corporation. It includes various financial activities like capital structuring and making investment decisions, financial planning, capital formation, and foreign capital, etc. Even financial organisations and banks play a vital role in corporate financing.

Henry Hoagland expresses, “Corporate Finance deals primarily with the acquisition and use of capital by the business corporation”.

Following two decisions are the basis of corporate finances:
(i) Financing decision:
Every business firm must carefully estimate its capital needs i.e. working capital and fixed capital. The firm needs to mobilize funds from the right sources also maintaining the right combination of debt capital and equity capital. For this balance, a company may go for or raise equity capital or even opt for borrowed funds by way of debentures, public deposits term loans, etc. to raise funds.

(ii) Investment decision:
Once the capital needs are accessed, the finance manager needs to take correct decisions regarding the use of the funds in a systematic manner, productively, using effective cost control measures to generate high profits. Finding investments through proper decisions and using them successfully in business is called ‘capital budgeting

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

6. Justify the following statements.

Question 1.
The firm has multiple choices of sources of financing.
Answer:

  • Business firms require finance in terms of working capital and fixed capital.
  • Funds are required at different stages of business.
  • The company can raise funds from various sources i.e. from internal and external sources.
  • Internal sources could be cash inflows on sales turnover, income from investments, and retained earnings.
  • External sources can be obtained for short-term requirements through cash credit, overdraft trade credit, discounting bills of Exchange issues of commercial paper, etc.
  • For long-term needs, a firm can meet its financing needs through the issue of shares, debentures, bonds, public deposits, etc. Thus, it is rightly said that the firm has multiple choices of sources of financing.

Question 2.
There are various factors affecting the requirements of fixed capital.
Answer:

  • Fixed capital being long-term capital is required for the development and expansion of the company.
  • The nature and size of a business have a great impact on fixed capital. Manufacturing businesses require huge fixed capital whereas trading organizations like retailers require less fixed capital.
  • Methods of acquiring assets on rentals or on a lease/installment basis will require less amount of fixed assets.
  • If fixed assets are available at low prices and concessional rates then it would reduce the need for investment in fixed assets.
  • International conditions and economic trends like a boom period will require high investment in fixed assets and a recession will lead to less requirement.
  • Similarly, consumer preferences, competition, and highly demanded goods and services will require a large amount of fixed capital. E.g. Mobile phones. Thus, it is rightly said that there are various factors affecting the requirements of fixed capital.

Question 3.
Fixed capital stays in the business almost permanently.
Answer:
Factors determining fixed capital requirements are:

  • Fixed capital refers to capital invested for acquiring fixed assets.
  • These assets are not meant for resale.
  • Fixed capital is capital used for purchasing land and building, furniture, plant, and machinery, etc.
  • Such cap al is usually required at the time of the establishment of a new company.
  • Existing companies may also need such capital for their expansion and development, replacement of equipment, etc.
  • Modern industrial processes require the increased use of heavy automated machinery. Thus, it is rightly said that fixed capital stays in the business almost permanently.

Question 4.
Capital structure is composed of owned funds and borrowed funds.
Answer:

  • Capital structure means to mix up of various sources of funds in desired proportions.
  • To decide capital structures means to decide upon the ratio of different types of capital.
  • A firm’s capital structure is the relation between the debt and equity securities that make up the firm’s financing of its assets.
  • The capital structure is composed of own funds which include share capital, free serves, and surplus, and borrowed funds which represent debentures, bank loans, and long-term loans provided by financial institutions.
  • Thus capital structure = Equity share capital + preference share capital + reserves + debentures.
  • Thus, it is rightly said that capital structure is composed of owned funds and borrowed funds.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

Question 5.
There are various factors affecting the requirement of working capital.
Answer:

  • The nature and size of a business affect the requirement of working capital. Trading or merchandising firms and big retail enterprises need a large amount of capital compared to small firms which need a small amount of working capital.
  • If the period of the production cycle is longer then the firm needs more amount of working capital. If the manufacturing cycle is short, it requires less working capital.
  • During the boom period sales will increase leading to increased investment in stocks, thus requiring additional working capital and during the recession, it is vice versa.
  • Along with the expansion and growth of the firm or company in terms of sales and fixed assets, the requirement of working capital increases.
  • If there is proper coordination, communication, and co-operation between production and sales departments then the requirement of working capital is less.
  • A liberal credit policy increases the possibility of bad debts and in such cases, the requirement of working capital is high, whereas a firm making cash sales requires less working capital.

7. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Discuss the importance of Corporate Finance?
Answer:
Corporate finance deals with the raising and utilizing of finance by a corporation. It also deals with capital structuring and making investment decisions, financial planning of capital, and the money market. The finance manager should ensure that:
The firm has adequate finance and it’s being utilized effectively;
Generate minimum return for its owners.

The importance of Corporate Finance are as follows:
(i) Helps in decision making:
Most important decisions of business enterprises are made on the basis of availability of funds, as without finance any function of business enterprise is difficult to be performed independently. Obtaining the funds from the right sources at a lower cost and productive utilization of funds would lead to higher profits. Thus corporate finance plays a significant role in the decision-making process.

(ii) Helps in raising capital for a project:
A new business venture needs to raise capital. Business firms can raise funds by issuing shares, debentures, bonds or even by taking loans from the banks.

(iii) Helps in Research and Development
Research and Development need to be undertaken by firms for growth and expansion of business and to enjoy a competitive advantage. Research and development mostly involve lengthy and detailed technical work for the execution of projects. Through surveys and market analysis etc. companies may have to upgrade old products or develop new products to face competition and attract consumers. Thus the availability of adequate finance helps to generate high efficiency.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

(iv) Helps in the smooth running of the business firm:
A smooth flow of corporate finance is important to pay the salaries of employees on time, pay loans, and purchase the required raw materials. At the same time finance is needed for sales promotion of existing products and more so for the launch of new products effectively.

(v) Brings co-ordination between various activities:
Corporate finance plays a significant role in the coordination and control of all activities in an organization. Production activity requires adequate finance for the purchase of raw materials and meeting other day-to-day financial requirements for the smooth running of the production unit. If the production increases, sales will also increase by contributing the income of the concern and profit to increase.

(vi) Promotes expansion and diversification:
Corporate finance provides money for the purchase of modern machines and sophisticated technology. Modern machines and technology help to improve the performance of the firm in terms of profits. It also helps the firm to expand and diversify the business.

(vii) Managing risk:
Companies have to manage several risks such as sudden fall in sales, loss due to natural calamity, loss due to workers strikes, change in government policies, etc. Financial aids help in such situations to manage such risks.

(viii) Replace old assets:
Assets like plants and machinery have become old and outdated over the years. Finance is required to purchase new assets or replace the old assets with new assets having new technology and features.

(ix) Payment of dividend and interest:
Finance is needed to pay the dividend to shareholders, interest to creditors, bank, etc.

(x) Payment of taxes/fees:
The company has to pay taxes to the government such as Income tax, Goods and Service Tax (GST), and fees to the Registrar of Companies on various occasions. Finance is needed for paying these taxes and fees.

Question 2.
Discuss the factors determining working capital requirements?
Answer:
Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities.
In other words, it is also called ‘Circulating Capital’. Also, refer to ‘GROSS WORKING CAPITAL.’ Management needs to determine the size of working capital with reference to the economic environment and other aspects within the business firm.

Factors determining/influencing working capital requirements are as follows:
(i) Nature of Business:
The working capital requirements are highly influenced by the nature of the business. Trading/ merchandising forms concerned with the distribution of goods require a huge amount of working capital to maintain a large stock of the variety of goods to meet customers’ demands are extend credit facilities to attract them. Whereas public utility concerns have to maintain small working capital because of a continuous flow of cash from their customers.

(ii) Size of business:
The size of a business also affects the requirements of working capital. Size of the firm refers to the scale of operation i.e. a firm with large scale operations will require more working capital and vice versa.

(iii) Volume of Sales:
The volume of sales and the size of the working capital have a direct relationship with each other. If the volume of sales increases there is an increase in the amount of working capital.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

(iv) Production cycle:
The process of converting raw material into finished goods is called the ‘production cycle’. If the production cycle period is longer, the firm needs more amount of working capital. If the manufacturing cycle is short, it requires less working capital.

(v) Business cycle:
When there is a boom in the economy, sales will increase resulting in to increase in investment in stock. This will require additional working capital. During a recession period, sales will decline and consequently, the need for working capital will also decrease.

(vi) Terms of purchases and sales:
If credit terms of purchase are favourable and terms of sales are less liberal, then the requirement of cash will be less. Thus, the working capital requirement will be reduced.
A firm that enjoys more credit facilities needs less working capital. On the other hand, if a firm does not get proper credit for purchases and adopts a liberal credit policy for sales if requires more working capital.

(vii) Credit Control:
Credit control includes the factors such as volume of credit sales, the terms of credit sales, the collection policy etc. A firm with a good credit control policy will have more cash flow reducing the working capital requirement. Whereas if the firm’s credit policy is liberal there would be more requirements of the working capital.

(viii) Growth and Expansion:
Those firms which are growing and expanding at a rapid pace need more working capital compared to those firms which are stable in their growth.

(ix) Management ability:
The requirement of working capital is reduced if there is proper coordination in the production and distribution of goods. A firm stocking on heavy inventory calls for a higher level of working capital.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance

(x) External factors:
If the financial institutions and banks provide funds to the firm as and when required, the need for working capital is reduced.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board HSC 12th Secretarial Practice Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra Board 12th HSC Important Questions

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Secretarial Practice Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board 12th Std Secretarial Practice Textbook Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Textbook Solutions

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
One of the important processes for storage of information in the LTM is _____________
a. perception
b. elaborative rehearsal
c. encoding
Answer:
b. elaborative rehearsal

Question 2.
Memory is a/an _____________
a. activity
b. process
c. performance
Answer:
b. process

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
_____________ memory has the shortest duration.
a. Sensory
b. Short Term
c. Long Term
Answer:
c. Long Term

Question 4.
_____________ memory is also known as Working Memory.
a. Long Term
b. Accidental
c. Short Term
Answer:
c. Short Term

Question 5.
_____________ memory has unlimited capacity.
a. Sensory
b. Short Term
c. Long Term
Answer:
a. Sensory

Question 6.
The span of Short-Term Memory is _____________
a. 5+/-2
b. 7+/-2
c. 9+/-2
Answer:
b. 7+/-2

1B. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them. If true, explain why.

Question 1.
Our sense organs also have memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Our sense organs have the capacity to retain the sensory impression received through the five senses for a very short time even after the source stimulus is withdrawn. It is known as sensory memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity.
Answer:
False
Reason: STM holds the information between 15 to 30 seconds and the capacity of STM is about seven items at a time. Fleece, has limited capacity.

Question 3.
Conscious memory of facts and events is called explicit memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Explicit memory is a type of LTM that contains conscious memories of facts and events.

Question 4.
Implicit memory is the memory of skills.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how we do things, regarding the use of objects or movements of the body.

Question 5.
When we memorize meanings, concepts, and principles, it is called episodic memory.
Answer:
False
Reason: Episodic memory is a memory of experiences and specific events which we recall step by step to reconstruct actual events.

Question 6.
The method of relearning is also known as the saving method.
Answer:
True
Explanation: In relearning method, there is a saving of time taken to learn the same material. Fleece, this method is also known as the saving method.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 7.
The most vivid memory is flashbulb memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Flashbulb memories are vivid memories of what we were doing at the time of an emotion-provoking event.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Encoding, Storage, Tip of the tongue (TOT), Retrieval
Answer:
Tip of the tongue (TOT)

Question 2.
Keyword method, Method of Loci, Chunking, Rote learning, First letter technique
Answer:
Rote learning

Question 3.
Sensory register, STM, Flashbulb memory, LTM
Answer:
Sensory register

Question 4.
Recall, Recognition, Relearning, Trace decay
Answer:
Trace decay

1D. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. A technique to improve memory a. Short-term memory
2. The most vivid memory b. Declarative memory
3. Working memory c. Implicit memory
4. Most organized memory d. Flashbulb memory
5. Playing the harmonium after a long time e. Method of Loci
6. Writing an essay on perceptual process f. LTM
g. Recall method
h. Relearning method

Answer:

A B
1. A technique to improve memory e. Method of Loci
2. The most vivid memory d. Flashbulb memory
3. Working memory a. Short-term memory
4. Most organized memory f. LTM
5. Playing the harmonium after a long time c. Implicit memory
6. Writing an essay on perceptual process g. Recall method

2. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain any one example of Flashbulb memory from your life.
Answer:

  • I clearly remember the day when my grandmother passed away.
  • On that day, I had an omelet for breakfast and went to college around 10.30 a.m. I attended only two lectures and then received a call about this bad news. After that, my best friend accompanied me home.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Explain the model of working memory proposed by Baddeley.
Answer:

  • Baddeley called STM a working bench of memory.
  • In the working memory model given by him, a central executive is responsible for the coordination between sub-systems of the phonological loop, episodic buffer, and the visuospatial sketchpad.
  • Both phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad have two components.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory 2 Q2

Question 3.
Explain the Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon with an example.
Answer:

  • Sometimes, when we search through our library of experiences to retrieve information from LTM, we cannot recall it even when we have that information on the tip of the tongue.
  • e.g. you want to recall the name of your cousin’s favourite clothing brand. Instead of that name, you recall all similar names.

Question 4.
Give an example of episodic memory.
Answer:

  • I remember a four-day-long celebration of my sister’s wedding.
  • It started with Haldi followed by Mehendi and the sangeet ceremony. After that, there was a grand wedding followed by a reception ceremony.
  • I also remember all preparations, outfits that I wore, and the food that we had in those four days.

Question 5.
What is motivated forgetting?
Answer:

  • Motivated forgetting is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously.
  • It is also called a conscious coping strategy but it should not be confused with defense mechanisms.
  • There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.

3. Compare and contrast.

Question 1.
STM and LTM
Answer:

  • Only the significant sensory inputs enter the Short-Term Memory (STM) through maintenance rehearsal. On the other hand, some items in STM enter the Long-Term Memory (LTM) after elaborative rehearsal which makes information meaningful and connects the same with already existing information in the LTM.
  • STM holds the information between 15 to 30 seconds and the capacity of STM is about seven items at a time. Conversely, once information enters LTM, it is retained more or less permanently and the amount of information stored in LTM is unlimited.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Implicit Memory and Explicit Memory
Answer:

  • Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how we do things while explicit memory is conscious memory of facts and events.
  • Implicit memory is also known as procedural memory while explicit memory is also known as declarative memory.

Question 3.
Semantic memory and Episodic memory
Answer:

  • Semantic memory is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts, and knowledge. On the other hand, episodic memory is a memory of experiences and specific events which we recall step by step to reconstruct the actual events.
  • Semantic memories have personal context which includes vocabulary, mathematics, rules of logic while episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events with times, places, and associated emotions.

Question 4.
Storage failure and Retrieval failure
Answer:

  • In case of storage, failure acquired and encoded information is not stored properly while in case of retrieval failure, problems arise while recalling the stored information for its actual use.
  • Both storage failure and retrieval failure make it difficult to use the retained information in the future.

Question 5.
Recall method and Recognition method
Answer:

  • The recall method involves remembering a fact, event, or object that is not currently physically present and requires the direct uncovering of information from memory, (e.g. long essay-type answers). In the recognition method, already learned material is present and the learner has to recognize it. (e.g. MCQs).
  • Recognition is relatively easier than recall. So, a score of memory by recognition method is usually more than the recall method.

4. What will you do if…

Question 1.
You have to prepare a long speech covering all the activities in your college and present at the annual function
Answer:

  • I will make a list of all the activities and rehearse it a number of times so as to ensure better retention.
  • I may also make a note with all points in brief which I can refer to if I forget something in the middle of a speech.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
How will you apply ‘POWER’ to prepare for the final exam of Psychology?
Answer:

  • Prepare: Before starting to study, I would prepare myself for it by setting goals. I will make myself aware of why am I studying Psychology, e.g. for acquiring good marks in the final exam.
  • Organize: I will organize the study material properly and make a schedule for each chapter. I will allot less time for chapters that are easy and familiar. I may study these chapters when I am a bit tired. Conversely, I will allot more hours to chapters that are unfamiliar, complicated, or technical. I will also ensure to study these complex chapters when I am fresh.
  • Work: I know that I have to work hard to achieve the goal of acquiring good marks. So, I will learn with the motive to understand and remember. I will try to associate new information with something that I have already learned.
  • Evaluate: I will try to evaluate my progress by solving practice papers. It will enable me to know how much I have learned and the quality of my knowledge.
  • Rethink: I will reanalyze, review, question, and challenge myself. I will also rethink whether I need to change my method of studying so as to achieve the goal of acquiring good marks in the final exam.

5. Short Notes.

Question 1.
Characteristics of Memory
Answer:

  • Memory is an ability by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.
  • Three basic processes or characteristics of memory are Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval.
  • The acquisition is the process of acquiring information from our sense organs. The information acquired and encoded is stored over a period of time. In retrieval, the stored information is recalled for the purpose of its actual use.
  • There are three stages of memory, viz. Sensory information store, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Question 2.
Techniques to improve memory
Answer:
Some techniques to improve memory are as follows:

  • Keyword method: In the keyword method, any two different pieces of information can be linked together. It is an effective method for remembering definitions and learning foreign language vocabulary.
  • Encoding specificity: According to encoding specificity, memory is improved when information is available while learning is also available at the time to recall.
  • Method of loci: It involves creating an imaginary route so that things can be remembered in a better way. e.g. steps to solve mathematical problems.
  • Mnemonic devices: Mnemonics will include acronyms or first letter techniques (e.g. VIBGYOR includes colours of the rainbow). It will also include visualization. Another technique is chunking where one can place large information into small chunks.
  • Practice and rehearsal: Relearning the same material a number of times lead to better retention and better recall. For small size or easy material, it is effective to optimally utilize our time and learn the entire material. For large size or difficult material, we must take breaks and learn the material in parts.
  • Minimizing interference: We should not learn similar subjects together as they might interfere with each other. Also, one must take a rest for minimising such interference.
  • POWER method: One can also use the POWER method for improving memory. Here, P stands for Preparation, 0 stands for Organisation, W stands for Work, E stands for Evaluation and R stands for Rethinking.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
Motivated forgetting
Answer:

  • Motivated forgetting is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously.
  • It is also called a conscious coping strategy but it should not be confused with defense mechanisms.
  • There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.
  • Repression: Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic model states that we subconsciously push unwanted thoughts and memories into our unconsciousness. People think that such repressed memories are completely forgotten.
  • e.g. a girl who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood may completely forget about it. But she may have difficulty while forming a romantic relationship.
  • Thought suppression: It is a conscious effort where we forget the memories of unwanted incidents and experiences of our lives, e.g. a person will avoid talking about his breakup.
  • Thought suppression can be time-consuming and also quite difficult as such suppressed thoughts tend to reoccur, e.g. a person may try to suppress the thoughts about his ex but he may not be successful in doing so.

Question 4.
Causes of forgetting
Answer:

  • Trace decay: Our memories fade out when we don’t use them for a longer period, i.e., traces of memory get decayed over time if they are not used.
  • Trace distortion: Some researchers believe that memory traces are not decayed but are distorted over a period of time and forgetting occurs.
  • Interference: Some researchers believe that we forget when materials that we learn one after the other interfere with each other. There are two types of interference, viz. retroactive interference and proactive interference.
  • Motivated forgetting: It is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously. There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Explain the process of human memory in detail.
Answer:

  • Memory is an ability by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.
  • The basic processes of memory include acquisition (encoding), storage, and retrieval.
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory 6 Q1
  • Acquisition/Encoding: Acquisition is the process of acquiring information from sense organs. Encoding is the process of transforming the information received into suitable symbols like pictures, figures, words, numbers.
  • Storage: The information acquired and encoded is preserved over a period of time. The process of storage is essential for using that information in the future.
  • Retrieval: It is the process of recalling the stored information for the purpose of its actual use. We tend to retrieve mobile numbers, names, etc. in our daily life.
  • We can think of these processes as analogous to the functions of a computer.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Explain the theories of forgetting in detail.
Answer:

  • Forgetting is the failure to retrieve the material from our long-term memory which we had already stored.
  • Researchers have put forward various theories of forgetting. Each theory highlights different reasons behind forgetting.
  • The various theories of forgetting are: Trace decay theory, Trace distortion theory, and Interference theory.
    • Trace decay: Our memories fade out when we don’t use them for a longer period, i.e., traces of memory get decayed over time if they are not used.
    • Trace distortion: Some researchers believe that memory traces are not decayed but are distorted over a period of time and forgetting occurs.
    • Interference: Some researchers believe that we forget when materials that we learn one after the other interfere with each other. There are two types of interference, viz. retroactive interference and proactive interference.

7. Arrange the following elements in concepts of memory in ascending order.

Question 1.
Elaborative rehearsal, Short Term Memory, Receiving information from the environment, Long Term Memory, Retrieval
Answer:

  • Receiving information from the environment
  • Short Term Memory
  • Elaborative rehearsal
  • Long Term Memory
  • Retrieval

Activities

Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 87)

Do you remember your first picnic at your school? Do you remember your primary school teacher? Now can you remember what food you ate last Monday? Why you can remember some incidents from the past clearly while you cannot remember some things which happened yesterday?
Answer:
We remember some incidents from the past clearly when they are a part of our long-term memory. Similarly, we cannot remember certain incidents from the recent past whey they form a part of our sensory or short-term memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 87)

Why does this happen? 25 workers used to work in Thomas Edison’s Bulb and Phonogram unit of industries. There was a huge tree near his company. After 6 months, Edison asked his workers about the huge tree but not a single worker could give information about that tree. Why do you think this happened despite seeing the tree every day?
Answer:
I feel the none of the workers could give information about the tree near their company since it was a part of their sensory memory, i.e., they perceived the stimulus (tree) with sense organs but did not rehearse it enough for it to become a part of their long term memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

1A. Complete the following statements with appropriate options.

Question 1.
__________ of the neuron absorbs the food and keeps the cell alive.
(A) Nucleus
(B) Axon
(C) Cell body
Answer:
(A) Nucleus

Question 2.
__________ plays a role mainly in cognition, reward, learning and memory.
(A) Acetylcholine
(B) Dopamine
(C) Serotonin
Answer:
(C) Serotonin

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
The brain plays an important role in __________ mental processes like thinking, reasoning, and emotions.
(A) higher-order
(B) lower order
(C) neutral
Answer:
(A) higher-order

Question 4.
Cerebellum consists of __________ parts.
(A) two
(B) three
(C) four
Answer:
(A) two

Question 5.
__________ is a vital centre of the brain.
(A) Medulla oblongata
(B) Pons
(C) Forebrain
Answer:
(A) Medulla oblongata

Question 6.
__________ is a bridge between forebrain and hindbrain.
(A) Pons
(B) Midbrain
(C) Cerebrum
Answer:
(B) Midbrain

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 7.
Cerebrum is the __________ part of the brain.
(A) largest
(B) smallest
(C) insignificant
Answer:
(A) largest

Question 8.
Each hemisphere of the brain is divided into __________ lobes.
(A) four
(B) six
(C) two
Answer:
(A) four

Question 9.
__________ is called as relay station of the brain.
(A) Hippocampus
(B) Thalamus
(C) Amygdala
Answer:
(B) Thalamus

Question 10.
__________ is called as the pleasure centre of our body.
(A) Hypothalamus
(B) Occipital lobe
(C) Spinal cord
Answer:
(A) Hypothalamus

Question 11.
A protein in the brain called __________ is related to Alzheimer’s disease.
(A) beta-amyloid plaque
(B) thyroxin
(C) gonad
Answer:
(A) beta-amyloid plaque

Question 12.
The spinal cord is connected to the periphery through __________ pairs of spinal nerves.
(A) 25
(B) 13
(C) 31
Answer:
(C) 31

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 13.
The chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands are called __________
(A) hormones
(B) neurons
(C) axons
Answer:
(A) hormones

Question 14.
Hyposecretion of thyroxin leads to cretinism among __________
(A) old people
(B) children
(C) adults
Answer:
(B) children

Question 15.
In the case of __________, a person loses his weight and experiences irritated mood, sleeplessness as well as sweaty palms.
(A) Myxedema
(B) Acromegaly
(C) Grave’s disease
Answer:
(C) Grave’s disease

Question 16.
__________ is secreted by the pancreas.
(A) Glycogen
(B) Cortisone
(C) Progesterone
Answers:
(A) Glycogen

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
i. Spinal cord a. PNS
ii. Autonomic Nervous system b. Telodendria
iii. Terminal Button c. Cerebrum
iv. Reticular Formation d. CNS
e. The Alarm clock of the body

Answer:

A B
i. Spinal cord d. CNS
ii. Autonomic Nervous system a. PNS
iii. Terminal Button b. Telodendria
iv. Reticular Formation e. The alarm clock of the body

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
The human nervous system is amongst all living creatures.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
The autonomic nervous system internal activity of the human body.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Dendrite is a gap between two neurons.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 4.
Glutamate is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
The brain consists of five major parts.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
The brain stem is divided into medulla oblongata and pons.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Medulla oblongata receives messages from higher centers of the brain.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
The reticular activation system is a bridge between two hemispheres.
Answer:
False

Question 9.
Midbrain consists of the superior and inferior colliculus.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
Two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum.
Answer:
True

Question 11.
If a person’s left side of the body is paralyzed, neurons from the left side of his body stop functioning.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 12.
The temporal lobe is in the cortex, just above the ears.
Answer:
True

Question 13.
People who exercise regularly have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Answer:
False

Question 14.
The human brain consumes 40% of the body’s total energy.
Answer:
False

Question 15.
The spinal cord extends from neck to waist.
Answer:
True

Question 16.
Exocrine glands are also called ductless glands.
Answer:
False

Question 17.
In myxedema, a person becomes very huge, lacks motivation, and complains about weakness.
Answer:
True

Question 18.
The adrenal gland is also known as the sex gland.
Answer:
False

1D. Identify which hormones with hyposecretion or hypersecretion would lead to the following conditions.

Question 1.
Grave’s disease
Answer:
Hypersecretion – Thyroxin

2A. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Nervous system
Answer:
The nervous system is the complex network of neurons that carry signals from brain to body and body to brain. Our nervous system consists of two major parts, viz, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Cerebral cortex
Answer:
The cerebral cortex is the grey coloured outside cover of the cerebrum. It controls higher-order mental processes such as attention, perception, learning, and memory.

Question 3.
Reflex action
Answer:
Reflex action is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to stimulus, e.g. salivation, sneezing, knee jerk, blinking of eyes. These are quick and simple patterns of behaviour without the involvement of the brain.

Question 4.
Glands
Answer:
Glands are specialized groups of cells or organs that secrete chemical substances. There are many glands. All glands fall into two categories, viz. endocrine and exocrine.

3. Answer the following questions in 35-40 words.

Question 1.
Explain the classification of the somatic nervous system.
Answer:

  • The somatic nervous system is divided into sensory and motor systems of the body.
  • It consists of sensory nerves (afferent nerves) and motor nerves (efferent nerves). Sensory nerves send messages from the body to the brain and motor nerves send messages from the brain to the body.

Question 2.
Why do we get different reactions to every situation?
Answer:

  • When a neural message passes from end buttons to the dendrite of another neuron, it has to cross the chemical gap between two neurons (synapse).
  • As neurons are not directly connected to each other, we don’t have fixed reactions to every situation.

Question 3.
State any two functions of the brain.
Answer:

  • The brain helps to adapt to the environment and tries to analyze, store and synthesize the information it receives.
  • The brain plays a crucial role in every aspect of our lives like decision making, emotional experience, and social interactions.

Question 4.
Why are we supposed to wear helmets while riding a bike?
Answer:

  • If someone meets with an accident while riding a bike, the person falls back on his head.
  • Most of the time, his Medulla oblongata is damaged which will lead to instant death.
  • Hence, we are supposed to wear helmets while riding a bike.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 5.
Explain the impact of hypersecretion of any four hormones.
Answer:

  • Parathyroxin: An individual experiences a feeling of nausea, vomiting sensation. He also feels sleepy and relaxed.
  • Cortin or cortisone: An individual experiences increased sexual drive. Females start looking like males.
  • Adrenalin and noradrenaline: An individual experiences increased heartbeat, blood pressure, and breathing rate.
  • Androgen and testosterone: An individual shows a tendency towards sexual behaviour. He feels very energetic and engages in aggressive behaviour.

Question 6.
Explain the impact of the hyposecretion of any three hormones.
Answer:

  • Parathyroxin: An individual lacks motivation and energy. He experiences weakness, muscle cramps, and spasms.
  • Cortin or cortisone: An individual feels very lazy, lacks sexual drive, and experiences loss of hunger and weight.
  • Androgen and testosterone: Males do not have a desire for sex and their voice remains childlike.

4. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Nervous system
Answer:

  • The nervous system is the complex network of neurons that carry signals from brain to body and body to brain.
  • The human nervous system is the most complicated yet highly developed among all living creatures.
  • Our nervous system consists of two major parts, viz, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System 4 Q1

Question 2.
Brain and nutrition
Answer:

  • Nutrition plays an important role in brain functioning. Nutritional deficiency may lead to neurological problems.
  • Despite representing only 2% of the body’s total mass, the human brain consumes 20% of the body’s total energy due. to the increased metabolic needs of human beings.
  • Nutrition plays a crucial role during developing years so to optimize the functions of the brain. It is also essential during old age to avoid the degeneration of cells.
  • Nutrition enhances brain functioning. It prevents as well as helps in treating neurological disorders.
  • As evolution took place, human life became more complicated and demanding. As a result, the need for nutrition by the brain kept on increasing.
  • Today human brain is exposed to a high level of stress which results in oxidation, Any food which is high in antioxidants (almonds, dark chocolate, onions, berries, mangoes, seafood) helps to control the ill effects of oxidation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
Spinal Cord
Answer:

  • The spinal cord is an important part of the central nervous system. It extends from neck to waist.
  • Its main function is to send information from the brain to the body and from to the body to the brain.
  • It controls reflex actions like salivation, knee jerk, blinking of eyes.
  • The spinal cord is connected to the periphery through 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
  • Each spinal nerve is joined to the spinal cord through two routes: the dorsal and ventral routes.
  • If dorsal routes are injured, we will not have sensations while if ventral routes are injured, we will not be able to move our body and control reflex actions.

5. Answer in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Write a note on neurons.
Answer:

  • Neurons are specialized networks of cells that transmit messages from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain. They are the basic units of the nervous system.
  • A neuron consists of dendrites, axon, cell body, and terminal button or telocentric.
  • The cell body is the body of neurons. The nucleus of the neuron absorbs the food and keeps the cell alive.
  • The neural message comes in through the dendrites. These are branch-like structures.
  • The neural message goes out from the axon of the neuron.
  • At the end of the axon, there are end buttons. It is a bulb-like structure containing chemicals known as neurotransmitters.
  • Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers. The neural message jumps across the synapse in order to reach the dendrite of another neuron.
  • When the neural message is passing through, it excites or inhibits the neurotransmitter in it. This chemical reaction decides our reaction to various situations in life.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Explain any five pillars of better brain functioning.
Answer:

  • Physical and mental exercise: Exercise improves blood flow and memory. It also stimulates chemical changes in the brain that improve learning, mood, and thinking.
  • Tackling medical problems: Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, head trauma, higher cholesterol, and smoking increase the risk of dementia. One can control and reduce this risk by going for regular health check-ups and taking medication if required.
  • Sleep and relaxation: Sleep energizes the brain, improves mood and immune system by clearing wastage and toxins from the body. Practicing meditation and managing stress will help to control the age-related decline in brain health.
  • Mental fitness: It improves the brain’s functioning and promotes new brain cell growth. This helps to decrease the chances of developing dementia. A person can keep his brain stimulated by solving puzzles, watching stimulating movies, or learning something new.
  • Social interaction: It is good for brain health to spend time with others, participate in stimulating conversation, and stay connected with family and friends. Studies have shown that those who interact more show less decline in their memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

1A. Complete the following statements with appropriate options.

Question 1.
Brain is a part of _________ nervous system.
a. central
b. peripheral
c. somatic
Answer:
a. central

Question 2.
_________ are the building blocks of the nervous system.
a. Cells
b. Neurons
c. Tissues
Answer:
b. Neurons

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
_________ nervous system prepares us for the fight or flight responses.
a. Somatic
b. Parasympathetic
c. Sympathetic
Answer:
c. Sympathetic

Question 4.
The gap between two neurons is called _________
a. synapse
b. joint
c. vacuum
Answer:
a. synapse

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Thyroxin a. Pituitary
2. Epinephrine b. Parathyroid
3. Parathormone c. Thyroid
4. Androgen d. Adrenal gland
5. Somatotropin hormones e. Salivary gland
f. Sex glands

Answer:

A B
1. Thyroxin c. Thyroid
2. Epinephrine d. Adrenal gland
3. Parathormone b. Parathyroid
4. Androgen f. Sex glands
5. Somatotropin hormones a. Pituitary

1C. Identify the odd item following series of words.

Question 1.
The frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Thalamus, Occipital lobe
Answer:
Thalamus

Question 2.
Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, Uric acid, GABA
Answer:
Uric acid

Question 3.
Dendrite, Nucleus, Tectum, Axon, Synapse
Answer:
Tectum

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 4.
Knee jerk, Sneezing, Thinking, Blinking of eyes
Answer:
Thinking

Question 5.
Thyroid, Sweat glands, Adrenal gland, Gonads, Pituitary gland
Answer:
Sweat glands

1D. Identify which hormones with hyposecretion or hypersecretion would lead to the following conditions.

Question 1.
Abnormal height, gigantism
Answer:
Hypersecretion – Somatotropin

Question 2.
Hyperactivity, speedy metabolism.
Answer:
Hypersecretion – Thyroxin

Question 3.
Cretinism
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Thyroxin

Question 4.
Stunted growth, dwarfism
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Somatotropin

Question 5.
Myxedema, fatigue, sluggishness, depression
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Thyroxin

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 6.
Increased appetite, overactivity, restlessness, lack of concentration
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Insulin, and glycogen

2. Which part of the brain is involved in processing the following information?

Question 1.
Smelling a flower
Answer:
Occipital lobe

Question 2.
Maintaining balance while standing upright
Answer:
Cerebellum

Question 3.
Comprehending a speech
Answer:
Temporal Lobe

Question 4.
Memorizing a childhood experience
Answer:
Frontal lobe

Question 5.
Feeling touch
Answer:
Parietal lobe

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 6.
Seeing a picture
Answer:
Occipital lobe

Question 7.
Feeling hungry
Answer:
Hypothalamus

Question 8.
Feeling afraid
Answer:
Amygdala

3. Answer the following questions in 35 to 40 words.

Question 1.
Explain the functions of the hypothalamus.
Answer:

  • Hypothalamus controls major bodily needs i.e., primary needs of an individual like hunger, thirst, sex as well as temperature regulation, and sleep.
  • It is also called the pleasure center of our body.

Question 2.
Describe the functions of each of the four lobes.
Answer:

  • Frontal lobe: It controls motor actions, thinking, memory and reasoning. It has Broca’s area which helps in speech production.
  • Parietal lobe: It helps in understanding information regarding skin-like touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
  • Occipital lobe: It is the visual processing center. It controls the sense of hearing, smell, and taste. It has Wernicke’s area which helps in language understanding.
  • Temporal Lobe: Hearing, understanding language, memory for language take place because of the temporal lobe.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
Explain the functions of the Amygdala and Hippocampus.
Answer:

  • Amygdala: It stores emotional memories of experiences. We experience emotions, especially fear due to the amygdala.
  • Hippocampus: It is the storage of long-term memories. If a person gets Alzheimer’s disease, his hippocampus is. mainly affected.

Question 4.
What is a synapse? How does a nerve impulse travel from one to another neuron?
Answer:

  • A synapse is a gap between two neurons.
  • The nerve impulse or neural message jumps across the synapse in order to reach the dendrite of another neuron.
  • When the neural message is passing through, it excites or inhibits the neurotransmitter in it. This chemical reaction decides our reaction to various situations.

Question 5.
Which are the important parts of the hindbrain? Explain their functions.
Answer:
Important parts of the hindbrain and their functions are as follows:

  • Cerebellum: It helps in maintaining body posture and body balance. It also helps in the coordination of the movements.
  • Brain stem: Medulla oblongata controls the breathing rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, and digestion. Pons sends and receives information from the lower parts of the brain. It helps to transmit messages between the cerebellum and cortex.
  • Reticular activation system: Its main function is to maintain wakefulness, concentration, and alertness.

Question 6.
How do endocrine glands affect our behaviour?
Answer:

  • Endocrine glands secrete chemical substances called hormones.
  • Hormones are like messengers that are responsible for certain behaviours or the absence of reactions.
  • e.g. Thyroid gland secretes the thyroxin hormone. Its hypersecretion leads to Grave’s disease while hyposecretion results in cretinism or myxedema.

4. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Autonomic Nervous System
Answer:

  • The autonomic nervous system controls the internal activities of the human body including heart rate, breathing, digestion, disposal of waste products, and toxins.
  • It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  • The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for a ‘flight or fight reaction. The job of the system is just opposite to its name.
  • The parasympathetic nervous system takes over when the situation becomes normal. It directs our body to store energy for emergencies.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Limbic System
Answer:
One of the important parts of the brain is the limbic system.

  • Hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are parts of the limbic system.
  • Hippocampus is responsible for the storage of long-term memories.
  • Amygdala stores emotional memories of our experiences.
  • Thalamus is called a relay station of the brain. It receives all information from the body and sends it to various parts of the brain.
  • Hypothalamus controls major bodily needs like hunger, thirst, sex as well as temperature regulation, and sleep.

Question 3.
Neurotransmitters
Answer:
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers. The important neurotransmitters are:

  • Acetylcholine: It is a chemical released by motor neurons of the nervous system to activate muscles.
  • Dopamine: It is released by the brain. If the level of dopamine is normal, we experience happy, pleasant feelings. It also plays an important role in the motivational process.
  • Norepinephrine: It increases the force of skeletal muscles, especially during fight or flight response.
  • Serotonin: It plays a role mainly in cognition, reward, learning, and memory. It also controls wakefulness, sleep, hunger, thirst, and liking.
  • Glutamate: It helps in learning, memory, and maintaining sugar levels.
  • GABA (Gama Amino Butyric Acid): It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter i.e. its principal role is to reduce the excitability of neurons throughout the nervous system. If it is less, it leads to convulsions and we cannot control body movements.

Question 4.
Pituitary gland
Answer:

  • The pituitary gland is one of the endocrine glands, i.e., glands that secrete chemical substances into the bloodstream.
  • It is also called as master gland as it helps other glands to produce their secretions and secretes the majority of hormones.
  • It consists of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
  • Anterior lobe: It secretes somatotropin, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. It helps the growth of the body and aids the adrenal gland. The hormones secreted by this gland are also vital for the nourishment of foetus.
  • Hypo or hypersecretion in the anterior lobe: Hyposecretion leads to dwarfism, wherein a person is very short (two-three feet tall). On the other hand, hypersecretion can lead to gigantism, wherein a person becomes very huge and is eight-nine feet tall. Hypersecretion can also result in acromegaly, wherein a person has the features of a chimpanzee.
  • Posterior lobe: It secretes oxytocin (which creates a feeling of happiness), pituitrin (which helps smooth muscle functioning of the stomach), thyrotrophic follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormone (which helps in the nourishment of foetus), and endorphins (which help to create neurotransmitters).

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

5. Compare and contrast

Question 1.
Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic nervous system
Answer:

  • The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for a ‘flight or fight reaction. On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system takes over when the situation becomes normal,
  • Example:
    • Situation: Suppose you are chased by a dog.
    • Sympathetic nervous system: Due to the functioning of this system, your heartbeat and palpitation increase. You also start to sweat.
    • Parasympathetic nervous system: When PNS takes over, your heart rate, palpitation, and sweating become normal. You regain a cool and composed state due to the functioning of this system.

Question 2.
Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands
Answer:

  • Exocrine glands directly release their secretions into the organ or tissue while endocrine glands secrete chemical substances into the bloodstream.
  • Exocrine glands have separate ducts for their secretion and so, they are also called duct glands, e.g. sweat glands and tear glands. On the other hand, endocrine glands are called ductless glands as they don’t have a separate duct. e.g. pituitary gland and thyroid gland.

6. Answer in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Explain the functions of various parts of the human brain.
Answer:
The brain consists of three major parts, viz. hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Its functions are as follows:
i. Hindbrain

  • Cerebellum: It helps in maintaining body posture and balance as well as aids in the coordination of movements.
  • Brain stem: Medulla oblongata controls the breathing rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, and digestion. Pons helps to transmit messages between the cerebellum and cortex.
  • Reticular activation system: It is the ‘Alarm clock’ of the body. It maintains wakefulness, concentration, and alertness.

ii. Midbrain: It sends information to the upper part of the brain and controls eye movements.

iii. Forebrain

  • Cerebrum: Cerebral cortex controls higher-order mental processes such as attention, perception, learning, memory. The surface of the cerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres. Neurons from the right hemisphere control the left side of the body and vice versa. Left hemisphere controls language, spatial relation, and pattern recognition.
  • Four lobes: Frontal lobe controls motor actions, thinking, memory and reasoning. The parietal lobe helps us in understanding information regarding skin. The occipital lobe controls our vision. The temporal lobe is responsible for hearing, understanding language, and memory for language.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Explain the significance of endocrine glands in human behaviour. State the functions of any five endocrine glands in detail.
Answer:

  • Endocrine glands secrete vital chemical substances called hormones. There is a strong impact of hormones upon human behavior.
  • Hormones are responsible for certain behaviours or the absence of reactions.
  • Over (hyper) or under (hypo) secretion of hormones may lead to a variety of problems.
  • e.g. Hypersecretion of insulin and glycogen hormones by the pancreas reduces blood sugar levels. It results in hyperglycemia, wherein a person lacks energy and motivation, may faint and go to coma. Conversely, in the case of hyposecretion, a person gets diabetes. He becomes quite hungry and feels very tired and restless. He also shows irritated behaviour and faces frequent and uncontrolled urination.

The functions of the five endocrine glands are as follows:

  • Thyroid gland: It secretes thyroxin which maintains the rate of metabolism.
  • Parathyroid gland: It secretes parathyroxin which maintains calcium as well as phosphate balance.
  • Pancreas: It secretes insulin and glycogen that is responsible for maintaining blood sugar levels.
  • Adrenal gland: Cortex secretes cortin or cortisone which maintains the level of water, sugar, and sodium. The medulla secretes adrenalin (which is associated with fear) and noradrenaline (which is associated with anger). Medulla plays important role in emotional excitement.
  • Gonads (sex gland): Testes in males secrete androgen and testosterone. These hormones are responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males. Their voice becomes hoarse. They also get mustaches and beards. Ovaries in females secrete estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for secondary sex characteristics in females. As a result, feminine looks develop and menarche begins.

Activities

Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 76)

Few activities are given below. Identify the system which dominates during these activities.

  1. Picking up an object from the ground
  2. Shivering when we sense danger
  3. Feeling composed when we feel safe
  4. Increase in heart rate when we sense that we are going to meet with an accident

Answer:

  1. Central nervous system
  2. Sympathetic nervous system
  3. Parasympathetic nervous system
  4. Sympathetic nervous system

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 80)

Think of the following actions. Which of them would be reflex actions and which of them will not be reflex actions?

  • Throwing a ball in a cricket match
  • Closing the eyes if someone brings a finger too close to them.
  • Removing the hand when you accidentally touch a thorn.
  • Immediate movement of the knee when tapped just below it.
  • Touching a hot object and pulling back your hand.

Answer:
Reflex actions:

  • Closing the eyes if someone brings a finger too close to them.
  • Removing the hand when you accidentally touch a thorn.
  • Immediate movement of the knee when tapped just below it.
  • Touching a hot object and pulling back your hand.

Non-reflex actions:

  • Throwing a ball in a cricket match

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
_____________ stress is referred to as a physical or psychological reaction that may lead to illness.
(A) Medical
(B) Emotional
(C) Psychological
Answer:
(A) Medical

Question 2.
_____________ is the base of four Kleshas.
(A) Avidya
(B) Dvesha
(C) Abhinivesha
Answer:
(A) Avidya

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
In Sanskrit, mental health is explained as _____________
(A) swasthya
(B) avidya
(C) arogya
Answer:
(A) swasthya

Question 4.
According to the _____________ prefix, ‘EU’ means good.
(A) Greek
(B) Latin
(C) Italian
Answer:
(A) Greek

Question 5.
_____________ is known as good stress.
(A) Hypo stress
(B) Distress
(C) Eustress
Answer:
(C) Eustress

Question 6.
_____________ increases the heart rate, elevates blood pressure and boosts energy supplies.
(A) Adrenaline
(B) Dopamine
(C) Cortisol
Answer:
(A) Adrenaline

Question 7.
Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome Model consists of _____________ stages.
(A) four
(B) five
(C) three
Answer:
(C) three

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 8.
Conflict is a _____________ word which means ‘striking two things at the same time’.
(A) Latin
(B) Greek
(C) French
Answer:
(A) Latin

Question 9.
Lewin talked about _____________
(A) valance
(B) psychoanalysis
(C) conflicts
Answer:
(A) valance

Question 10.
In _____________ focused coping strategy, stress is reduced by resolving the conflict through work on the task at hand.
(A) emotion
(B) problem
(C) thought
Answer:
(B) problem

Question 11.
At times, a lack of capacity to achieve the goal urges individuals to readjust their goals. This is known as _____________
(A) withdrawal
(B) compromise
(C) attack
Answer:
(B) compromise

Question 12.
_____________ theory of Psychoanalysis is the base of defence mechanisms.
(A) Freud’s
(B) Selye’s
(C) Webster’s
Answer:
(A) Freud’s

Question 13.
_____________ operates on two energies.
(A) Ego
(B) ID
(C) Superego
Answer:
(B) ID

Question 14.
_____________ is an indirect way to deal with stress.
(A) Psychoanalysis
(B) Problem-focused coping
(C) Defence mechanism
Answer:
(C) Defence mechanism

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 15.
In _____________, the material can be recalled up to a certain extent.
(A) suppression
(B) repression
(C) sublimation
Answer:
(A) suppression

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
i. Avidya a. Ego
ii. Asmita b. Repulsion
iii. Raga c. Ignorance
iv. Dvesha d. Lust for life
v. Abhinivesha e. Attraction

Answer:

A B
i. Avidya c. Ignorance
ii. Asmita a. Ego
iii. Raga e. Attraction
iv. Dvesha b. Repulsion
v. Abhinivesha d. Lust for life

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them. If true, explain why?

Question 1.
Different people deal with stress in different ways.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Different people deal with stress in different ways depending upon their genetic predisposition and environmental conditions.

Question 2.
Dopamine and oxytocin hormones are associated with negative feelings.
Answer:
False
Reason: Dopamine and oxytocin hormones are associated with positive feelings.

Question 3.
Depression is an example of chronic distress.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Depression is an example of chronic distress as it causes constant changes in moods for a long period of time. A depressed person experiences recurrent negative stress.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 4.
Hans Selye asserted that stress is always harmful.
Answer:
False
Reason: Hans Selye asserted that the stress of creative and successful work is beneficial whereas that of failure and humiliation is harmful.

Question 5.
External stressors result in peace of mind.
Answer:
False
Reason: External stressors result in frustration, anger, and disappointment.

Question 6.
The value of the goal differs from person to person.
Answer:
True
Explanation: The value of the goal is subjective. A goal may be attractive or unattractive based on whether an individual wants to achieve it or avoid it.

Question 7.
In avoidance-avoidance conflict, an individual is repelled by both goals.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Avoidance-Avoidance conflict involves two unattractive goals with negative values.

1D. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Avidya, Arogya, Asmita, Abhinivesha
Answer:
Arogya

Question 2.
Fatigue, Burn out, Depression, Irritability, Anxiety
Answer:
Irritability

Question 3.
Noise, crowding, Strict parents, Weak economic condition, Hunger
Answer:
Hunger

1E. Identify the conflict of motive that is experienced by the person in the following situation.

Question 1.
Ajit likes two cars but he has enough money to buy only one of them.
Answer:
Approach – Approach conflict

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 2.
Nishant must do his mathematics homework which he dislikes or get a beating from his parents.
Answer:
Avoidance – Avoidance conflict

Question 3.
Sartaj has to choose between two girls for marriage. One is good-looking but boring. The other one is fun but short.
Answer:
Double Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question 4.
Ami would love to buy a new house but it will create a burden on the family’s financial budget.
Answer:
Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question 5.
Shreya has to decide between two appealing destinations for her vacation.
Answer:
Approach – Approach conflict

Question 6.
Rita either has to be late for work or break traffic rules by driving during the red light.
Answer:
Avoidance – Avoidance conflict

Question 7.
Nisha has a choice between two jobs. One is far away but pays well. The other one is close to her house but has no room for advancement.
Answer:
Double Approach – Avoidance conflict

1F. Identify the defense mechanism used in each of the following examples.

Question 1.
Alisha, who was sexually abused as a child, cannot remember the abuse at all.
Answer:
Repression

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 2.
Ritesh dresses and acts like Spiderman, his favourite superhero.
Answer:
Identification

Question 3.
Suresh hates his neighbour but believes that his neighbour hates him.
Answer:
Projection

Question 4.
Rajesh, who is very aggressive, becomes a football player.
Answer:
Sublimation

Question 5.
Sanjana gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home and fights with her husband.
Answer:
Displacement

Question 6.
Sanket who is cut off from a sports team fantasizes about winning the Olympics.
Answer:
Daydreaming

Question 7.
Shruti is attracted to her sister’s husband but denies this and believes that her sister’s husband is attracted to her.
Answer:
Projection

Question 8.
After being rejected by a prestigious university, Harshil explains that he is glad because he would be happier at a smaller, less competitive college.
Answer:
Rationalization

Question 9.
Neha really admires Priya, the most popular girl in school and tries to copy her behaviour and dressing style.
Answer:
Identification

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 10.
Three years after being hospitalized, Sonali can remember only vague details about the event.
Answer:
Repression

Question 11.
Angered by her neighbour’s hateful comment, Ekta spanks her daughter for accidentally spilling milk.
Answer:
Displacement

2A. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Stress
Answer:
The word stress is derived from the Latin word ‘stringi’ which means ‘to be drawn tight’. Stress refers to the discomfort experienced by an individual in demanding situations. It arises when an individual is able to mobilize lesser resources than the situation demands.

Question 2.
Leisure
Answer:
Leisure is quality time spent away from work, domestic duties, studies, after a heavily exhausting period. It has relaxing and recreational qualities. We have choice and freedom in our leisure time.

Question 3.
Cortisol
Answer:
Cortisol is the primary stress hormone. It increases sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhancing the brain’s use of glucose and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues.

Question 4.
Stressors
Answer:
Stressors are environmental conditions, external stimuli, or events that cause stress to an organism. There are two types of stressors, viz. internal stressors and external stressors.

Question 5.
Frustration
Answer:
Frustration is a common emotional response related to anger and disappointment. When an individual is highly motivated to achieve something and when his goal-directed behaviour is blocked by an obstacle, it results in frustration.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 6.
Id
Answer:
Id is the most primitive storehouse of our biological energy. Id has psychic energy. It operates on the pleasure principle and demands immediate gratification of desires.

Question 7.
Defense mechanisms
Answer:
Defense mechanisms are an indirect way to combat stress. These are the unconscious strategies used to protect the ego from shattering due to unacceptable and harsh reality. It is a stop-gap arrangement that provides some time for the person to come to terms with reality. It is a face-saving device.

2B. Compare and contrast with examples.

Question 1.
Acute distress and Chronic distress
Answer:

  • Acute distress is an intense, short-term negative stress while chronic distress is a long-lasting, recurrent negative distress.
  • Acute distress occurs when there is a sudden change in routine or when we experience panic or threat, e.g. traffic jam, accident. Chronic distress is the worst type of stress-causing constant changes in routine for a long period of time. e.g. illness of a family member, death of a spouse.

3. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
What are the effects of hypo stress?
Answer:
Hypo stress is an insufficient amount of stress which is caused when a person has nothing to do at all. Its effects are as follows:

  • It leads to boredom.
  • It causes feelings of restlessness.
  • People become demotivated and unenthusiastic.

Question 2.
What are the ill effects of distress?
Answer:
Distress is a negative type of stress. Its ill effects are as follows:

  • Our body is flooded with emergency response hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
  • It can cause physical conditions like headaches, digestive issues, and sleep disturbances.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
Identify the possible reactions to Approach-Avoidance conflict.
Answer:
The three possible reactions to Approach-Avoidance conflict are:

  • One may give importance to the positive value.
  • One may be very cautious about the negative value.
  • One may leave the goal altogether to avoid the situation.

Question 4.
Explain the impact of excessive use of defense mechanisms.
Answer:

  • Excessive use of defense mechanisms leads to a habit of escaping from reality and indulgence in falsehood about one’s own self.
  • However, reality chases, and sooner or later one has to face it.
  • At such a point, the ego is no longer protected and it may lead to symptoms of mental disorders.

4. Write short notes in 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Anxiety
Answer:

  • Anxiety is a state where a person may feel that something is wrong and will experience symptoms like palpitation, rapid heart rate, sweaty palms, and dry throat.
  • Two types of anxiety in Freud’s theory are:
    • Neurotic anxiety: Here, id and ego are in conflict with each other
    • Moral anxiety: Here, the superego and ego are in conflict with each other

For your understanding

  • Neurotic anxiety comes from the unconscious fear that the basic impulses of the id will take control of the person, leading to eventual punishment from expressing the id’s desires.
  • Moral anxiety comes from the superego. It appears in the form of fear of violating moral codes or values, leading to feelings of guilt and shame.

Question 2.
Defense mechanisms
Answer:

  • Defense mechanisms are an indirect way to combat stress.
  • They are unconscious strategies used to protect the ego from breaking due to unacceptable/harsh reality. It functions as a shock absorber.
  • It should be used moderately as its excessive use leads to a habit of escaping from reality.
  • Some commonly used defense mechanisms are projection, displacement, and daydreaming.

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words each.

Question 1.
Elaborate on the General Adaptation Syndrome model proposed by Hans Selye.
Answer:

  • Hans Selye, the father of stress research, introduced the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model in 1936 showing the effects of stress on the human body.
  • He asserted that stress is a major cause of disease since chronic distress causes long term chemical changes.
  • The GAS model may be defined as the manifestation of stress in the whole body. It consists of three stages:

a. Alarm stage: It is the first reaction to stress. The organism recognizes that there is a danger and prepares to deal with the threat by a ‘fight or flight response. This natural reaction provides energy to the body to deal with stressful situations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

b. Resistance stage: After the initial shock, the body begins to repair itself. In this phase, it remains on high alert for a while. If one overcomes the stress, the body continues to repair itself until the hormone level, heart rate, and blood pressure come to normal. Signs of this stage include irritability, frustration, poor concentration.

c. Exhaustion stage: If stress is not resolved in the resistance stage, a person enters the exhaustion stage. Here, the body’s ability to cope up becomes less. The individual may collapse quickly and the body’s immune system, as well as the ability to resist stress, diminishes. Signs of the exhaustion stage include fatigue, burnout, depression, and anxiety.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q1

Question 2.
Explain aspects of Freud’s psychoanalysis theory.
Answer:
According to Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, our personality is controlled by three aspects. They are:

  • Id: It operates on the pleasure principle and demands immediate gratification of desires. It operates on primary process thinking where logical rules are not applied. It operates on two energies: Libido (sexual energy) and Thanatos (destructive energy).
  • Ego: It operates on the reality principle and has better problem-solving abilities as compared to Id. Ego indulges in secondary process thinking and it knows how and when to satisfy desires.
  • Superego: It internalizes the moral values of society (do’s and don’ts) and also includes the ‘rights’ and ‘wrongs’ we unknowingly learn from our role models. It helps us to control impulses coming from the Id and makes our behaviour less selfish and more virtuous. According to this theory, our reactions to situations depend upon the interaction of these three systems.

Question 3.
Explain the different types of defense mechanisms.
Answer:
Some of the defense mechanisms described by Dr. Sigmund Freud are as follows:

  • Repression: It is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts outside our conscious awareness. These are the thoughts that would result in feelings of guilt from the superego.
  • Displacement: It is the redirection of an impulse onto a less powerful target. A person cannot retaliate against the actual source of anger and so, redirects his anger on a less threatening object.
  • Projection: It involves the individual attributing his own thoughts, feelings, and motives to another person.
  • Sublimation: It is one of the most adaptive defense mechanisms as it can transform negative anxiety into positive energy. A person uses sublimation to redirect his motivation into more acceptable and productive tasks.
  • Identification: Flere, by adopting another person’s mannerisms, language, patterns, etc., a person tries to imitate his character traits and starts behaving like another person.
  • Daydreaming: When life appears to be distressing, people often use fantasy as a way of escaping reality. This is called daydreaming.
  • Rationalization: It occurs when a person attempts to explain or create excuses for his failure. In doing so, an individual is able to avoid accepting the true cause or reason for his failure.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Stress

Some other important defense mechanisms are:

  • Denial: It is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. e.g. alcoholics often deny that their behaviour is problematic.
  • Compensation: It means people overachieve in one area to compensate for failures in another. e.g. a student who fails in studies may compensate by becoming a champion in athletics.
  • Intellectualization: It works to reduce anxiety by thinking about events in a cold and clinical way. e.g. a person diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
When the demand of a situation exceeds personal and social resources an individual can mobilise, it leads to __________
a. worries
b. stress
c. depression
Answer:
b. stress

Question 2.
__________ leads to boredom.
a. Eustress
b. Hypo stress
c. Distress
Answer:
b. Hypo stress

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
__________ is necessary for better performance.
a. High stress
b. Moderate stress
c. Low stress
Answer:
b. Moderate stress

Question 4.
Low level of intelligence may act as __________ stressor while facing a difficult exam.
a. internal
b. external
c. imposed
Answer:
a. internal

Question 5.
__________ results when a goal-directed activity is blocked by some obstacle.
a. Frustration
b. Anger
c. Conflict
Answer:
a. Frustration

1B. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them, If true, explain why.

Question 1.
Well-adjusted person does not experience stress at all.
Answer:
False
Reason: A well-adjusted person may experience stress and discomfort at times because the degree of adjustment changes according to the situation and time.

Question 2.
Stress can be good sometimes.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Sometimes stress can be good because we can achieve optimum performance under moderate stress.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
Hyper stress leads to the best performance.
Answer:
False
Reason: Hyper stress does not lead to the best performance. Moreover, under the influence of hyper stress, a person may undergo panic leading to frustration.

Question 4.
Hypo stress is a bliss.
Answer:
False
Reason: Hypo stress leaves a person demotivated, unenthusiastic, bored and restless.

Question 5.
Hyper stress leads to panic and exaggerated response.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Hyper stress leads to panic and exaggerated response because it occurs under extremely pressurising situations. In such a situation, a person may also throw temper tantrums leading to frustration.

Question 6.
Conflict of motives is an internal stressor.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Conflict of motives is an internal stressor because the conflict is within the individual who has to choose between two or more equally strong and incompatible motives.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 7.
Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve because an individual is attracted and repelled by the same goal which has both positive and negative values.

Question 8.
Compromise is emotion focused coping strategy.
Answer:
False
Reason: Compromise is a problem focused coping strategy.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question i.
Unchallenging job, Unemployment, Leisure, Lack of purposeful activity
Answer:
Leisure

Question ii.
Eustress, Hyper stress, Frustration, Distress, Hypo stress
Answer:
Frustration

Question iii.
Attack, Withdrawal, Defence mechanism, Compromise
Answer:
Defence mechanism

Question iv.
Withdrawal, Projection, Sublimation, Rationalisation, Displacement
Answer:
Withdrawal

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

1D. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Two negative goals a) Defence mechanism
2. Problem-focused coping b) Hypo stress
3. Vacation after sufficient work c) Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
4. Lack of challenging work d) Direct way of coping with stress
5. Emotion-focused coping e) Approach-Avoidance conflict
f) Leisure

Answer:

A B
1. Two negative goals c) Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
2. Problem-focused coping a) Defence mechanism
3. Vacation after sufficient work e) Approach-Avoidance conflict
4. Lack of challenging work b) Hypo stress
5. Emotion-focused coping d) Direct way of coping with stress

2. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question (i).
What are the ill effects of distress?
Answer:
Distress is a negative type of stress. Its ill effects are as follows:

  • Our body is flooded with emergency response hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
  • It can cause physical conditions like headaches, digestive issues, and sleep disturbances.
  • It can cause psychological and emotional strains like confusion, anxiety, and depression.

Question (ii).
Explain the relationship between the level of stress and performance with the help of an appropriate diagram.
Answer:

  • Everybody deals with stress in different ways.
  • When stress is too less or when it exceeds the limit, it deteriorates performance.
  • Optimum performance can be achieved only under moderate stress.
  • This can be explained with the help of a diagram:
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 2 Q2

Question (iii).
Explain the internal and external stressors with examples.
Answer:

  • Internal stressors: These are stressors within us and we have to deal with them ourselves, e.g. a paralyzed individual may not be able to do any work which can lead to stress.
  • External stressors: These are stressors from the outside environment which result in frustration, e.g. forgetting the PIN while using an ATM machine.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (iv).
What are the effects of hypo stress?
Answer:
Hypo stress is an insufficient amount of stress which is caused when a person has nothing to do at all. Its effects are as follows:

  • It leads to boredom.
  • It causes feelings of restlessness.
  • People become demotivated and unenthusiastic.

Question (v).
Why the approach-avoidance conflict is most difficult to resolve?
Answer:
Approach-Avoidance conflict is most difficult to resolve because:

  • An individual is attracted and repelled by the same goal.
  • There is only one goal that has both positive and negative values.
  • An individual has no choice. He has to accept the consequences of his choice.

3. Compare and contrast with examples.

Question 1.
Eustress and Distress
Answer:

  • Eustress means good or a positive form of stress having a beneficial effect on health, motivation, performance, and emotional well-being (Merriam Webster). Conversely, distress is a negative type of stress and is experienced when the normal routine of an individual is constantly altered and adjusted.
  • e.g. After a lot of practice, Amit is ready for his football match. He will experience eustress. e.g. Ajay is fired from his job and is not able to find a job anywhere else. He will experience distress.

Question 2.
Hypo stress and Hyper stress
Answer:

  • Hypo stress is an insufficient amount of stress and is caused when an individual has nothing to do at all while hyper stress is caused due to extremely pressurizing conditions.
  • Hypo-stress makes an individual demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless while in case of hyper stress, a person may panic and engage in exaggerated reactions leading to frustration and agitation.
  • e.g. When one cannot use his full potential in a job, it results in hypo stress. e.g. When one is stuck in a traffic jam, has forgotten to carry important documents for the meeting, and is late to work, it results in hyper stress.

Question 3.
Emotion-focused coping and Problem-focused coping
Answer:

  • In emotion-focused coping, an individual focuses on the emotions resulting from stress. On the other hand, in problem-focused coping, an individual focuses effort on the problem and accepts the reality as it is.
  • e.g. Nilesh tries to avoid negative emotions by keeping his mind stable with meditation or stuff down negative emotions by fighting with others. This is emotion-focused coping, e.g. When a chef gets negative feedback about a dish he has made, he makes more efforts to improvise the dish. This is problem-focused coping.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 4.
Attack and Withdrawal
Answer:

  • In an attack strategy, an individual directly attacks the conflict as a direct way to resolve it. On the other hand, in withdrawal strategy, an individual may indulge in beating retreat or withdraw from the goal when he cannot achieve it after putting in his best efforts.
  • e.g. When an employee wants a promotion and gets negative feedback on his presentation, he tries to improvise his presentation, learns, and asks for help from his seniors to get promoted (attack), e.g. If the employee is not promoted due to flaws in his presentation, he may leave the job altogether (withdrawal).

Question 5.
Compromise and Withdrawal
Answer:

  • In compromise strategy, a person readjusts the goal to the nearest possible goal when he cannot achieve the original goal due to lack of capacity. Alternatively, in withdrawal strategy, a person may indulge in beating retreat or withdraw from the goal when he cannot achieve it after putting in his best efforts.
  • e.g. An individual who wanted to become an orthopedic surgeon but could not manage to get admission. So, he took up physiotherapy as a career (compromise), e.g. On not getting admission, the individual may give up the field of medicine and his dream of becoming a doctor and pursue something else (withdrawal).

Question 6.
Projection and Rationalization
Answer:

  • Projection involves the individual attributing his own thoughts, feelings, and motives to another person while rationalization occurs when a person attempts to explain or create excuses for his failure. By doing so, the individual avoids accepting the true cause of his failure.
  • e.g. when a student has not studied for the exam, he may say that the questions were out of the syllabus (projection), e.g. when a person cannot afford a car, he says that cars are not environment friendly (rationalization).

4(1). What are the possible consequences?

Question (a).
Mehul is sufficiently prepared for his exams but feels tremendously stressed.
Answer:

  • It is possible that Mehul might panic and go blank while writing the paper.
  • So, Mehul should be confident about what he has studied and hope that he does well in the exam.

Question (b).
Sujata has nothing to do as her husband is a multimillionaire, nor does she have any hobby.
Answer:

  • Sujata is facing hypo-stress as she has nothing to do at all. It is possible that she feels very bored, demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless.
  • In order to feel good about herself, she should pursue something she likes and diverts her mind.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (c).
Kalpesh sets his goals similar to his top ranker brother, without considering his ability.
Answer:

  • Kalpesh will feel very stressed if he does not have the level of intelligence or ability required to meet the goals. It would lead to anger and frustration.
  • There is also a possibility that he would feel extremely demotivated and leave the goal permanently.

Question (d).
Mohsin resorts to blaming others every time he fails.
Answer:

  • Mohsin is using the defense mechanism called projection to protect his ego from shattering. But at some point, he will have to face the reality.
  • At such a point in time, his ego would no longer be protected and may lead to mental health problems.

4(2). Identify the defense mechanism used in each of the following examples.

Question (a).
Rahul who is interested in football was not selected for the college football team. He says he never wanted to be a part of the college football team.
Answer:
Displacement

Question (b).
Vipasha comes from an extremely poor family. She sleeps into imagining herself driving her own car.
Answer:
Sublimation

Question (c).
Arnav got a scolding by his teacher and he could not answer back. After coming home, he started beating his younger brother for no reason.
Answer:
Daydreaming

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (d).
Ajay loved a girl who turned down his proposal. Later he became a successful composer.
Answer:
Rationalization

4(3). Identify the conflict of motive that is experienced by the person in the following situation.

Question (a).
Rashmi has got a promotion in her company and so has to go abroad. She wants to take this opportunity but at the same time, she is not willing to leave her parents.
Answer:
Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question (b).
Yogesh has got selected by two reputed companies at the same time and both are his dream offers.
Answer:
Approach – Approach conflict

Question (c).
Julius doesn’t want to go to a wedding ceremony with his family as it’s too boring there but doesn’t want to stay alone at the same time.
Answer:
Avoidance – Avoidance conflict

Question (d).
Shanaya is very conscious about her figure, but she is also very tempted to eat sweets.
Answer:
Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question (e).
Vishal has got the invitation from his school friends for a reunion party on the same day as his fresher’s party in his college.
Answer:
Double Approach – Avoidance conflict

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

5. Write short notes in 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Types of stress
Answer:

  • Hypo stress: It is caused when one has nothing to do at all.
  • Hyper stress: It is caused due to extremely pressurizing conditions.
  • Eustress: It is a positive form of stress.
  • Distress: It is a negative type of stress. Two types of distress are:
    • Acute distress: Intense and short-term
    • Chronic distress: Long-lasting and recurrent

Question 2.
Relationship between stress level and performance
Answer:

  • When stress is too little or when it exceeds the limits, it deteriorates performance.
  • Optimum performance can be achieved only under moderate stress.

Question 3.
Direct ways to cope with stress
Answer:

  • Attack: An individual directly attacks the conflict to resolve it.
  • Compromise: If a person cannot achieve the goal, he may readjust the goal to the nearest possible goal.
  • Withdrawal: When a person cannot achieve a goal after putting in their best efforts, he may withdraw from the goal altogether.

Question 4.
Defense mechanisms
Answer:

  • Defense mechanisms are an indirect way to combat stress.
  • They are unconscious strategies used to protect the ego from breaking due to unacceptable/harsh reality. It functions as a shock absorber.

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words each.

Question 1.
Give the definition of stress and explain different types of stress.
Answer:
According to Richard Lazarus, ‘stress is a feeling experienced when an individual feels that the demands exceed the personal and social resources an individual is able to mobilize’.
The types of stress are as follows:

  • Hypo stress: It is an insufficient amount of stress and may be due to work under load. When people have nothing to do, they get bored and if this feeling persists for a longer time, it results in hypo-stress. People with hypo-stress are demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless.
  • Hyper stress: It is a result of extremely pressurizing conditions. Due to hyper stress, a person may experience panic attacks and may engage in exaggerated reactions like throwing temper tantrums. It leads to frustration and agitation.
  • Eustress: It is a good form of stress which has a positive effect on health, motivation, performance, and emotional well-being. It is a state when an individual is excited, determined, inspired, energized, and ready to go. While experiencing eustress, the body is temporarily and intensely flooded with hormones like oxytocin and dopamine.
  • Distress: It is a negative type of stress. An individual experiences it when the normal routine is constantly adjusted and altered. While experiencing distress, our body is flooded with emergency response hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. Distress is divided into two types:
    • Acute distress: It is intense, short-term negative stress.
    • Chronic distress: It is a long-lasting, recurrent negative stress.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 2.
What is meant by conflict of motives? Explain the different types of conflicts with examples. Illustrate your answer with appropriate figures.
Answer:
Conflict of motives refers to the clash between two or more equally strong and incompatible motives occurring at the same time that compels an individual to make a choice, which in turn leads to stress.
The types of conflict are:
i. Approach-Approach conflict: There is a conflict between two positive and attractive goals. The decision will depend on the attractiveness of the goal and its valence may change, e.g. Bhoomi wants to take up two courses but they are both scheduled at the same time.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2

ii. Avoidance-Avoidance conflict: The conflict involves two goals with negative values. An individual is forced to make a choice between two negative and unattractive goals, e.g. Ritu must work at a job which she dislikes, or else she must remain unemployed.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.1

iii. Approach-Avoidance conflict: There is only one goal and it has positive as well as a negative value. This type of conflict is very difficult to resolve. There are three possible reactions in such a situation: give importance to a positive value, be cautious about the negative value and leave the goal altogether, e.g. Aryan receives a letter of acceptance from a college of his choice but it is very expensive.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.2

iv. Double Approach-Avoidance conflict: An individual faces conflict between two or more goals that have an equal positive or negative value. However, an individual is always disappointed with the choice he makes as he has to lose the other goal, e.g. Richa has to choose between two boys for marriage. One is handsome but boring. The other one is fun but not good-looking.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.3

Activities

[Note: The answers to activities will be very subjective. The answers provided are for reference. Students are expected to perform these activities on their own.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 61)

Look at the following examples of stress. Try to find a pattern in them and make a definition of stress for yourself.
i. Meena needs fees for her higher education. But her father has less money than required. He feels very stressed.
ii. Rashid is late for an appointment and he is stuck up in a traffic jam. He is stressed about reaching on time.
iii. Parminder is supposed to make a model for the Science examination which is not working. Parminder feels stressed.
Answer:
Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that requires adjustments. It refers to a situation in which an individual’s expectations cannot be fulfilled due to a lack of resources.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Activity 6 (Textbook Page No. 66)

Try to find examples of the given types of conflicts in your life or around you. How are these types of conflicts resolved? Are they? How does one deal with the resulting stress?
Answer:
Everyone faces all types of conflicts at one time or the other. I have to choose between two of my favourite destinations for the upcoming vacations. My uncle loves to eat sweets but he is a diabetic and so, he is always thinking about how to resolve this conflict. My younger brother has to choose between doing homework and going to tuition. He dislikes both.

All these types of conflicts are difficult to resolve but solving them is also very important. Everybody deals with the resulting stress in different ways. Ideally, we should weigh the pros and cons of every situation and then come to a conclusion.