## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Geography Solutions Chapter 9 Map Scale

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Solutions Chapter 9 Map Scale Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Solutions Chapter 9 Map Scale

Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Map Scale Textbook Questions and Answers

1.

Map Scale Std 8 Question a.
Classify maps showing the following areas into small scale or large scale:
(1) Building (2) School (3) Country of India (4) Church (5) Mall (6) World map (7) Garden (8) Dispensary (9) Maharashtra state (10) The north sky at night.
The classification of maps showing the given areas is as follows:
(A) Small scale maps:

1. Country of India
2. World map
3. Maharashtra state
4. The north sky at night.

(B) Large scale maps :

1. Building
2. School
3. Church
4. Mall
5. Garden!
6. Dispensary.

Map Scale Class 8 Geography Question b.
There are two maps with respective scales of 1cm = 100 m and 1cm = 100 km. Give well reasoned answer as to which of them would be a large scale map and which a small scale map. Recognize the types of maps.
A. Out of the two maps with respective scales of 1 cm = 100 m and 1 cm = 100 km, a map with respective scale of 1 cm = 100 m would be a large scale map.
B. Reasons :

1. 1 metre is equal to 100 centimetres and 100 metre is equal to 10000 centimetres.
2. Thus, the value of the given verbal scale (1cm = 100 m) is 1 : 10000 in numerical terms (scale).
3. A map having a numerical scale of 1 : 10,000 or less than it is called large scale map. Therefore, 1cm = 100 m would be a large scale map.

C. Types of maps :

1. Maps of villages, church, agricultural fields, etc. are the large scale maps.
2. Maps of state, country, continent, world, etc. are the small scale maps.

2. Using a map of India from the atlas measure straight Line distance between the following cities and complete the table below.

Question a.

 Cities Distance on a map Actual distance 1. Mumbai to Bangaluru 0.98 cm 980 km 2. Vijaypura to Jaipur 2 cm 2000 km 3. Hyderabad to Surat 0.9 cm 900 km 4. Ujjain to Shimla 1.14 cm 1140 km 5. Patna to Raipur 0.75 cm 750 km 6. Delhi to Kolkata 1 cm 1000 km

3.

Map Scale Std 8 Questions And Answers Question a.
The distance between two points A and B on the ground is 500 m. Show this distance on paper by a line of 2 cm. Express the map scale by any one method and mention it.

Question b.
Convert verbal scale of 1cm = 53 km to a numerical scale.

1. 1 kilometre is equal to 100000 centimetres. Therefore, 53 kilometres is equal to 5300000 centimetres.
2. Therefore, the verbal scale of 1 cm = 53 km can be converted to a numerical scale as – 1 : 5300000.

Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Map Scale Question c.
Convert numerical scale of 1 : 10000000 to a verbal scale in the metric system.

1. 100000 centimetres is equal to 1 kilometre. Thus, 10000000 centimetres is equal to 100 kilometres.
2. Therefore, numerical scale of 1 : 10000000 to a verbal scale in the metric system can be converted as 1 cm = 100 km.

4. Help them, using road and railway maps of the state of Maharashtra. Use the scale given in the maps.

Std 8 Geography Chapter 9 Map Scale Question a.
Ajay wants to arrange a family trip. Beed-Aurangabad-Dhule-Nasik Mumbal-Pune-Solapur-Beed. He wants to visit tourist places along this route. The cost of the vehicle is Rs 12/- per km. What would be the approximate cost of travel?

Map Scale Questions And Answers Question b.
Saloni has been asked to organize a trip by her teacher. She has selected Nagpur Chandrapur-Nanded-Washim-Akola Malkapur. What would be the total coverage in kilometers?

Geography Class 8 Chapter 9 Question c.
Vishawasrao is transporting goods in a vehicle from Alibag (district Raigad) to Naldurg (district – Osmanabad). How many km. will he be covering aproximately for a to and fro travel?

Projects:

Map Scale Questions Question a.
Measure the length and breadth of your school. Prepare a sketch according to scale. Show different parts of your school on the sketch.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Solutions Question b.
With the help of google maps find the distance between your village and your neighbouring village. Represent all the three methods of map scale on paper.

Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Map Scale Additional Important Questions and Answers

Mark ✓ the box next to the right alternative:
(Note: The answers are given directly.)

Question a.
Which of the following factor’s map will be a large scale map?
(a) Temple [ ]
(b) State [ ]
(c) Nation [ ]
(d) Continent [ ]
(a) Temple [✓]

Question b.
Which of the following scale indicates small scale map?
(a) 1 : 100 [ ]
(b) 1 : 1000 [ ]
(c) 1 : 10000 [ ]
(d) 1 : 100000 [ ]
(d) 1 : 100000 [✓]

Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question a.
What is verbal scale?
A scale in which distances are expressed with the use of words indicating measurement is called verbal scale.

Question b.
What is numerical scale?
A scale in which distances are expressed as ratio is called numerical scale.

Question c.
What is linear scale?
A scale in which distances are expressed by drawing graphical scale is called linear scale.

Question d.
What is large scale map?
A map in which a particular part of ground covers comparatively more area is called large scale map.

Question e.
What is small scale map?
A map in which a particular part of ground covers comparatively less area is called small scale map.

Write short notes on:

Question a.
Verbal scale.
1. A scale in which distances are expressed with the use of words indicating measurement is called verbal scale.
2. For example, 1cm = 100 km.

3. In verbal scale, the word indicating measurement on the left hand side indicates the distance between any two points on a s map. On the other hand, the word indicating 1 measurement on the right hand side! indicates the ground distance between those two points.

4. When the map is reduced or enlarged by taking its photo copy, the verbal scale on the original map does not change.

Question b.
Numerical scale.

1. Numerical scale: A scale in which distances are expressed as ratio is called numerical scale.
2. For example, 1:10000. It is also known as representative fraction.
3. In numerical scale, the same measuring unit is used for the figures on the left hand side and right hand side. However, no words are used to indicate this measuring unit.
4. In numerical scale, number 1 on the left hand side indicates the distance between any two points on a map. On the other hand, the number 10000 on the right hand side indicates the ground distance between those two points.
5. When the map is reduced or enlarged by taking its photo copy, the numerical scale on the original map does not change.

Question c.
Linear scale.

1. A scale in which distances are expressed by drawing graphical scale is called linear scale.
2. For example,
3. Compass or blade of grass is used if the ruler is not available for the measurement.
4. A thread is used for measuring the curved distances between two points shown in a map.
5. When the map is reduced or enlarged by taking its photo copy, the linear scale drawn on the original map changes as per the changing size of the map.

Highlight differences /Distinguish between the following:

Question a.
Large scale map and Small scale map.

Question b.
Numerical scale and Linear scale.

Study the following map /figure/graph and answer the following questions:

Study the Figure and answer the following questions:

Question a.
How much is the ground distance between Mumbai and Gondia?
The ground distance between Mumbai and Gondia is approximately 810 kilometres.

Question b.
How much is the distance between Satara and Sangli on a map?
The distance between Satara and Sangli on a map is approximately 1.5 centimetres.

Thought-Provoking Question:

Question a.
What is the need to use map scale? Think about it and write a paragraph.

1. If the map scale is not mentioned in a map, it will become difficult to know the ground (actual) distance between any two points shown in a map.
2. Map scale is important element of a map. It facilitates map reading.
3. If the map scale is mentioned in a map, it will become very easy to understand the ground (actual) distance between any two points shown in a map.

Open-Ended Question:

Question a.
Which of the following scale will you prefer to use: (a) Verbal scale (b) Numerical scale (c) Linear scale?

1. Different measuring units are used in different countries of the world. Due to linguistic differences, particular verbal scale or linear scale may not be used with ease in all the countries.
2. Numerical scale is a global scale. It can be used universally. Therefore, we will prefer numerical scale.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.4 Leisure

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.4 Leisure Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions, and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.4 Leisure

Class 8 English Chapter 3.4 Leisure Textbook Questions and Answers

Leisure Poem 8th Std Warming Up:

1. Discuss in groups and share with one another:

Leisure Poem Questions And Answers Class 8 Question 1.
The daily routine of your mother and father on working days
(Points: what time they get up – what time they leave for work – what time they return home – have lunch – dinner – bedtime, etc.)

3.4 Leisure Questions And Answe Question 2.
How your family relaxes on weekends
(Points: rest at home – visit relatives – shopping – malls – movies – gardens – catch up on housework, etc.)

Std 8 English Poem Leisure Question 3.
When you go for a picnic, what and how do you enjoy it?
(Points: go to the beach/mall /garden/movies etc. – relax and enjoy by yourself – sing songs – go in big groups – go as a family – go to restaurants for food, etc.)

Leisure Question Answers Class 8 Question 4.
Do you spend time admiring and thinking over the beauties of nature? Elaborate on your response.
(Points: no beautiful nature around/ gardens nearby – like enjoying natural beauties – prefer city life – like animals and birds – visit zoos and parks. etc.)

2. When a poet I writer attempts (o describe something in words, so that it appeals to our five senses (sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste) he/she has used a des ice called Imager.
For example a host of golden daffodils’.
to a chasm, deep and vast and wide’.
Go through other poems in your textbook or other books and find outlines that contain Imagery. Write them does n along with the name of the poem and line/stanza number.
Students can attempt this activity on their own.

3. Prepare un Acrostic from the word ‘Leisure’. The words should be related to what one likes to do in free time:

1. L ………..
2. E ………….
3. I …………
4. S ………..
5. U ………..
7. E …………

1. Laze around
2. Enjoy movies
3. Initiate games
4. Sleep
5. Undertake to clean house
7. Exercise

1. Say Where:

Question a.
………… do the cows and sheep stand? …………..
Beneath the branches of trees.

Question b.
………… do squirrels store their food? ………….
In the grass.

Question c.
………….. do stars shine in the daytime …………..
In the streams.

Question d.
………….. does Beauty’s smile begin? ……………….
In her eyes.

Question a.
What could have inspired the poet to compose this poem? Do you think it relates to our present-day life? Defend your choice.
The poet must have seen the busy lives of people around him, who are always in a hurry and have no leisure to look at the beauty around. Yes, it certainly relates to our present life, which keeps getting busier and busier. Today, with the Internet, the mobile phone, the computer, and social networking sites, our lives are getting more I and more artificial and further from nature than ever before.

Question b.
Which line proves that in our busy lives we do not even have a fraction of a second to enjoy nature’s beauty?
The lines are :
No time to see, when woods we pass
Where squirrels hide their nuts in the grass?
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Are streams full of stars, like skies at night?
No time to turn at Beauty’s glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance?
No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.

Question c.
‘Beauty’ in stanza 5 to 6 can refer to a beautiful maiden as well as nature itself. Explain when and how nature ‘dances’ and also ‘smiles’.
Nature dances during spring and: summer, when the leaves of trees and the flowers sway in the breeze. Nature smiles at the beginning of spring when the plants begin to once again bloom slowly.

Question d.
Why does the poet call our life ‘poor’?
The poet calls our life ‘poor’ because we are always anxious and under stress. We are completely cut off from nature and cannot relax and enjoy its beauty. He feels that this type of life is a ‘poor’ life.

3. You have learned that when u human attribute is given to anything that is not a human being or it is spoken of as a person, the Figure of Speech used is culled as ‘Personification’:

Question a.
Pick out two examples of Personification from the poem
(i) ‘No time to turn at Beauty’s glance, I And watch her feet, how they can; dance?’ Nature has been given the human qualities of ‘glancing’ and ‘dancing’.
(ii) ‘No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich the smile her eyes began.’ Nature has been given the human quality of ‘smiling’.

Question b.
Pick out from the poem, two examples of each of the following Figures of Speech:

3.4 Leisure Question 1.
Alliteration
(i) We have no time to stand and stare.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’.
(ii) ‘Streams full of stars, like skies at; night.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’.

8th Standard English Poem Leisure Notes Question 2.
Simile
(i) ‘And stare as long as sheep or cows.’ Here, a direct comparison has been made between sheep and cows.
(ii) ‘Streams full of stars, like skies at night.’ Here, a direct comparison has been made to the night skies.

Leisure Poem 8th Std Question 3.
Metaphor
(i) ‘No time to turn at Beauty’s; glance.’ Here nature has been implicitly compared to a beautiful woman.
(ii) ‘Enrich the smile her eyes began.’ Here the blooming of flowers has been implicitly compared to a woman smiling.

Question c.
The poet opens his poem with a question. Is the question asked to receive some answer? No. It is a question used to emphasize and stress the fact that modern man has no time to enrich his life from nature. Such a device used by poets falls under the Figure of Speech called ‘Interrogation
or ‘Rhetorical Question’. Refer to the poem ‘The Pilgrim’ and find examples of Interrogation.
‘What is this life, if full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare?’
Here the poet asks a question to emphasize and stress the fact that modern man has no time to appreciate nature.
(Note: The lines in stanzas 2,3,4,5 and 6 are also examples of Interrogation.)

4. Say where the images from mature given in the poem exist:

Air/Land/Water

Question a.
beneath the thoughts …………..
Land

Question b.
squirrel hide nuts in grass …………
Land

Question c.
streams in day time ………..
Water

Question d.
stars/ skies at night …………
Air

5. Make a paraphrase of the poem ‘Leisure’ in your own simple words. Write down in your notebook.
In this poem, the poet, W.H. Davies, questions the type of life we are leading if we have no time to appreciate the beauties of nature. He says that we have no time to stand beneath the trees and stare as sheep and cows do. When we are walking through the woods we have no time to watch where the squirrels hide their food in the grass. We have no time to look at streams that sparkle and a twinkle in broad daylight and appear to be full of stars like the skies at night.

We have no time to watch when a beautiful young girl dances, or wait for her lips to complete the smile which started in her eyes. (We can also say that ‘Beauty’ is nature, and we have no time to see trees swaying In the breeze or flowers blooming slowly.)
In the concluding lines, the poet repeats that our life is a poor life if it is full of cares and worries with no time to appreciate and enjoy the beauty of nature.

Complex Factual Activities:

Class 8 English Leisure Question 1.
What does the poet want us to stare at and gain from it?
The poet wants us to spare some time from our busy schedules to look at the beauty of nature and enjoy it.

Leisure Class 8 Question 2.
Enlist the beautiful things in nature that we overlook.
We overlook:

1. squirrels hiding their food in the grass
2. twinkling and sparkling streams
3. a beautiful girl smile and dance/trees swaying in the breeze and flowers blooming slowly.

8th Standard English Poem Leisure Question 3.
Analysis/ Appreciation Of The Poem

1. Poem and poet: ‘Leisure’ by William Henry Davies.
2. Theme: The poet regrets that ours is a poor life if it is full of cares and worries and we have no time to appreciate and enjoy the beauty of nature.
3. Tone: Serious and analytical; reflective poem.
4. Structure and stanzas: The stanzas are of two lines each; seven couplets with lines of equal length.
5. Rhyme and Rhythm: The rhyme scheme is aa, bb, cc, and so on, with the ending words of each couplet rhyming.
6. Language and Imagery: The language is simple; the poem has many figures of speech and is full of imagery when the poet describes the beauty of nature.
7. Figures of Speech: Alliteration, Personification, Simile, Metaphor, Repetition, Interrogation.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.2 The Kite Festival

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.2 The Kite Festival Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.2 The Kite Festival

Class 8 English Chapter 3.2 The Kite Festival Textbook Questions and Answers

The Kite Festival Std 8 Warming Up:

1. Cut out the wrong kites:

2. Name the festival that you enjoy the most of all. Fill in the facts about that festival.
(a) Name of the festival:_______.
(b) When it is celebrated: _______.
(c) Why it is celebrated: ______.
(d) How it is celebrated: _______.
(e) Special cuisine: _______.
(f) Other special features: _______.
Students can discuss and write down details about their favourite festival. They can consult their parents/friends / the internet, etc.

1. Give the Antonyms und Synonyms of the words below, choosing from those given:

 Words Synonyms Antonyms Happily Joyfully Sorrowfully Traditional Old-fashioned Modern Halt pause start Triumph victory defeat Exotic foreign native Rival competitor partner Soar rise drop Brilliance lustre dullness

2. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

Question a.
Fibreglass kites led to creating power – driven aeroplanes.
False

Question b.
In Gujarat, the kite – festival is celebrated to welcome the Spring.
False

Question c.
Uttarayana’ starts from Makar Sankranti onwards.
True

Question d.
Kite – flying in Gujarat, is a competitive sport – cum – festival.
True

Question e.
The kite – Bazar in Ahmedabad, is open day and night for a week.
True

Question f.
The special thread for kite – flying is sharpened by adding sugar and glass pieces.
False

3. Using points from the lesson, give the details of the following in a short paragraph for each topic:

Question a.
Different types of kites.
Traditional kites are made of kite paper and have thin wooden frames. The modern kites may be motorized or made of fibreglass. Exotic kites have marvellous shapes such as that of eagles and snakes. There are also illuminated box-kites called tukals.

Question b.
The International Kite Festival at Ahmedabad is held either at the Sardar Patel Stadium or the Police Stadium. It attracts international kite-flyers as well as local champions. Little Indian paper kites compete with those from Japan, USA, UK and other countries. Exotic kites with marvellous shapes such as eagles and snakes soar in the sky. The Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week, and people crowd the streets through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age- old kite-making skills and how to prepare special thread. At night, illuminated box- kites are sent into the sky.

Question c.
During the Kite Festival at Ahmedabad, the Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week. People crowd the streets and buy their stocks, haggling through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age-old kite-making skills and how to prepare special thread covered with a mixture of glue and ground glass.

4. You hue just returned after your first experience of the kite – festival in Gujarat/Ahmedabad. You were thrilled with the festivities.

Write a short report about the kite – festival for your local newspaper. Give an attractive headline, a dateline and an account of the kite – festive. Write the report in third person with more use of Passive voice.
You have a friend who lives abroad. Write a letter to your friend describing how you enjoyed the kite-festival.

5.A. Verb forms show both, Tense (Present, Past, Future) and Aspect (Progressive, Perfect,Perfect Progressive):

Progressive (Continuous): be + verb-ing
Present Progressive: He is playing.
Past Progressive: He was playing.
Future Progressive: He will be playing.

Perfect: have / has / hod verb – en / cd
Present Perfect: They have played.
Future Perfect: They will have played.

Perfect Progressive: have/has/had + been + verb – ing
Present Perfect Progressive: We have been playing.
Past Perfect Progressive: We had been playing.
Future Perfect Progressive: We shall have been playing.

5. B. Underline the verb forms in the following sentences and state their Tense and Aspect:

(i) They are waiting for the right winds.
(ii) People were haggling over the price of kites.
(iii) Vendors had been selling kites all through the week.
(iv) Skilled craftsmen had demonstrated age-old skills.
(v) State Tourism Corporation will be organising the International Kite Festival.
(vi) Kite – flyers have demonstrated their skills with exotic kites.

 Sentences Tense Aspect i. They are waiting for the right winds. present progressive ii. People were haggling over the price of kites. past progressive iii. Vendors had been selling kites all through the week. past perfect  progressive iv. Skilled craftsmen had demonstrated age-old skills. past perfect v. State Tourism Corporation will be organizing the International Kite Festival. future progressive vi. Kite-flyers have demonstrated their skills with exotic kites. present perfect

Class 8 English Chapter 3.2 The Kite Festival Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complete the table showing how modern ones:

The Kite Festival Std 8 Question 1.

 Kites of the past Modem kites

 Kites of the past Modem kites (1) made of kite paper (2) had thin wooden frames (3) box kites (1) motorized kites (2) kites made of fibreglass

The Kite Festival Std 8 Questions And Answers Question 2.
When is kite-flying at its peak in India?
Kite-flying is at its peak in India during the coming of Spring and during the festival of Makar Sankranti, which coincides with the festival of Uttarayan.

3.2 The Kite Festival Questions And Answers Question 3.
Write how they celebrate the kite-flying festival in Gujarat.
During the kite-flying festival, people of all ages go out into the open to fly kites and to cut’ each others’ kites. In towns and cities, where open spaces are difficult to find, terraces and rooftops are often used to fly the kites.

Activities based on Contextual Grammar:

The Kite Festival Questions And Answers Question 1.
People of all ages go out into the open to try their luck with their kites.
(Pick out the finite verbs and the infinitives.)
finite verb – go; infinitive – to try

The Kite Festival Std 8 Question Answer Question 2.
It is also a celebration to mark the end of winter. (Rewrite using ‘which’.)
It is also a celebration which marks the end of winter.

Personal Response:

The Kite Festival Std 8 Question Answer Question 1.
Do you like flying kites? Why?
I am not a very big fan of kites. I do not like to fly them, but I like to watch other people do so. I used to fly kites earlier; but once I came to know that birds died because of the glass-covered thread, and there were injuries to people too, I stopped this sport.

List the reasons:

The Kite Festival Answers Question 1.
The kite-festival at Ahmedabad is very special.
The kite-festival at Ahmedabad is very special because:

• An International Kite Festival is held either at the Sardar Patel Stadium or the Police Stadium.
• It attracts international kite-flyers as well as local champions.
• Little Indian paper kites compete with those from Japan, the USA, UK and other countries.
• Exotic kites with marvellous shapes such as eagles and snakes soar in the sky.
• The Patang or Kite Bazar in the heart of Ahmedabad is open 24 hours a day for a whole week, and people
• crowd the streets through the night.
• Skilled craftsmen demonstrate kite-making age-old skills and how to prepare a special thread.
• At night, illuminated box-kites are sent into the sky.

3.2 The Kite Festival Question 2.
How do they celebrate the kite-flying festival in Gujarat?
The kite-flying begins at dawn and continues throughout the day. People of all ages gather in the open, on rooftops and terraces. They compete with each other and are triumphant when someone cuts the thread of a rival. Some people prepare special lines for their kites. There is music in the air and traditional delicacies are specially prepared. An International Kite Festival is organized by the Gujarat State Tourism Corporation.

Complete the following:

Class 8 English Chapter 3.2 Question Answer Question 1.
A visit to the Patang Bazar proves that _______.
the entire city of Ahmedabad is obsessed with kites

Question 2.
The special thread for kite-flying is prepared by ________.
covering the thread with a mixture of glue and ground glass and allowing it to dry

Question 1.
Different types of kites:
Traditional kites are made of kite paper and have thin wooden frames. The modern kites may be motorized or made of fibreglass. Exotic kites have marvellous shapes such as that eagles and snakes. There are also illuminated box-kites called tukuls.

Question 2.
The International Kite Festival at Ahmedabad is held either at the Sardar Patel Stadium or the Police Stadium. It attracts international kite-flyers as well as local champions. Little Indian paper kites compete with those from Japan, USA, UK and other countries. Exotic kites with marvellous shapes such as eagles and snakes soar in the sky. The Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week, and people crowd the streets through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age-old kite-making skills and how to prepare a special thread. At night, illuminated box- kites are sent into the sky.

Question 3.
During the Kite Festival at Ahmedabad, the Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week. People crowd the streets and buy their stocks, haggling through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age-old kite-making skills and how to prepare special thread covered with a mixture of glue and ground glass.

Question 4.
One of the highlights of this festival is the Patang Bazar, which is open twenty-four hours a day, for a whole week.
(Underline the clauses in the sentence.)
One of the highlights of this festival is the Patang Bazar, which is open twenty-four hours a day, for a whole week.

Question 5.
They add a grand beauty to the dark sky and compete with the brilliance of the stars.
(Rewrite as two separate sentences.)
They add a grand beauty to the dark sky. They compete with the brilliance of the stars.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
What is the care to be taken by children while flying kites?
Children should not run after kites on the road or try to rescue them from trees. This could lead to accidents. They should be careful if they are flying kites from terraces and rooftops. The thread should be handled with care, and there should be no injuries to animals or human beings because of it.

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Pick out two compounds, words from the lesson.
Two compound words: kiteflying, power-driven

Question 2.
Use the following phrase in your own sentence: in the middle of the night.
The baby woke up in the middle of the night and began to play.

Question 3.
Build a word chain of five adjectives :
long → green → naughty → young → grateful → lovely.

Question 4.
Find out four hidden words from the given word:
traditional (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)

Question 5.
Use the following word in two separate sentences, the word having different meanings (homographs):
watch
(i) The policemen watched the house the whole day.
(ii) I was very upset as I had lost my watch.

Question 6.
Underline the clauses in the following sentence:
There is music in the air and traditional delicacies are specially prepared for the day
There is music in the air and traditional delicacies are specially prepared for the day.

Question 7.
Identify the type of sentence:
The little boy would happily pick up his kite and run out into the field.
Assertive sentence.

Question 8.
Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:
In India, however, the tradition of kite-flying has not changed.
In India, however, the tradition of kite-flying has remained the same.

Question 9.
Rewrite in indirect speech:
The harassed mother would often say
to her restless son, “Why don’t you go fly a kite ?”
The harassed mother would often ask her restless son why he did not go fly a kite.

Question 10.
Use the following word as a noun and a verb in two separate sentences:
cut

• The cut on my hand healed soon, (noun)
• I cut my finger when I was slicing a mango, (verb)

Writing Skills:

Question 1.
You have just returned after your first experience of the kite-festival in Gujarat/Ahmedabad. You were thrilled with the festivities.
Write a short report about the kite festival for your local newspaper. Give an attractive headline, a dateline, and an account of the kite-festival. Write the report in the third person with more use of Passive Voice.

Ahmedabad, 17 January: A variety of colourful kites adorned the sky this year during the International Kite Festival here. A record number of countries participated in this annual festival. The famous International Kite Festival, organized by the Gujarat State Tourism Corporation, was held at the Sardar Patel Stadium. 14 countries, including India, participated. The kites were very colourful and in a variety of shapes. There were dragons, eagles, snakes, crocodiles, etc. Some had tiny lights in them, while j some were studded with stones. Excited spectators watched in awe as the kites; soared in the sky, free as birds.

This year, the first prize, a gold-plated cup in the shape of a kite, went to Korea. The Korean team succeeded in keeping their kite in the sky for the longest time. Last year’s winner and the host country, India, J did not stand a chance this year and were ; out of the competition at an early stage. “We will double our efforts for the next year and come out with flying colours,” said Rakesh ) Pandya, captain of the home team. We wish them all the best for the next year, Harsh Mehta.

Question 2.
You have a friend who lives abroad.
Write a letter to him/her describing how you enjoyed the kite-festival,
‘Gulmohar’
17 January 2019

Hi Dominic,
How are you? You have hardly written j to me since you went to London. Why the silence?
Yes, I know you are busy, but you can spare some time for an old friend, can’t you?

Here in Ahmedabad, the kite festival is just over. We had a wonderful time flying kites and cheering others. The school was closed for two days, and my friends and I spent one j day watching the competition at the Police Stadium and the other day at the ground near our house, flying an assortment of kites. Our kites were ordinary ones, but you should have seen the exotic kites being flown at the Police Stadium! They were from Japan, the U.S., U.K., Thailand, Korea and other places. They were in the shape of eagles, snakes, crocodiles, dragons, etc. Some had shining tails while some had bejewelled bodies. The competition was very stiff-but guess what! The first prize was won by the Indian team!
Our own competition too was very thrilling. We cut so many kites! We were also awake the whole night shopping for kites and eating. It was really a wonderful time.

Well, I hope that next year you will be back in India and maybe you can come to Ahmedabad during this time. You will certainly enjoy the festival-and the eats! Hope you find time to reply.
Harsh.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions, and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf

Class 8 English Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf Textbook Questions and Answers

3.3 The Last Leaf Warming Up:

1. Suppose you suffer from a long – term illness (one or two weeks), what should you do and what should you avoid? Fill up the table of Do’s and Don’ts:

 Do’s Don’ts (1) Go to a doctor for a diagnosis. (1) Do not ………….. (2) ………… (2) Do not avoid medication on time. (3) Take a suitable diet. (3) Avoid ………….. (4) Take rest. (4) Avoid physical stress and exertion. (5) Rest in a properly ventilated room. (5) Do not ……………. (6) Have cheerful thoughts, courage, a positive attitude. (6) Do not lose …….. and ………….

 Do’s Don’ts (1) Go to a doctor for diagnosis. (1) Do not try any medication on your own. (2) Take medicines on time. (2) Do not avoid medication on time. (3) Take a suitable diet. (3) Avoid junk food. (4) Take rest. (4) Avoid physical stress and exertion. (5) Rest in a properly ventilated room. (5) Do not close doors and windows. (6) Have cheerful thoughts, courage, a positive attitude. (6) Do not lose hope and courage.

2. You already know that Homophones are pairs of words that sound the same but differ in spellings and meanings:
For example sum and some
There are some words that even have the same spelling and pronunciations, but have different meanings in different situations or contexts.
For example: bat (a bird) and ki (sports / games equipment)
Such words are called Homographs.
Make pairs of sentences of your own to point out the different meanings of the following Homographs

The Last Leaf Class 8 Questions And Answers Maharashtra Board Question 1.
fine:
(i) The new driver had to pay a fine for breaking the signal.
(ii) We decided to go for a picnic only if the day was fine.

The Last Leaf Class 8 Questions And Answers Question 2.
wave:
(i) Ronny waved to his father before going for the picnic.
(ii) The waves in the sea before the tsunami were huge.

The Last Leaf Question Answer Class 8 Question 3.
bear:
(i) The grizzly bear hibernates during winter.
(ii) Simi could not bear to see the two cats fighting.

3.3 The Last Leaf Question 4.
rose:
(i) The rose is a beautiful flower.
(ii) The teacher rose from her chair to explain the sum.

3.3 The Last Leaf Questions And Answers Question 5.
(i) Lead is used in pencils.
(ii) A good king leads his country to prosperity.

Class 8 English Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf Question Answer Question 6.
match:
(i) Though we lost the match, we were not upset,
(ii) “Buy the shoes only if they match the dress,” said mother to Madhu.

The Last Leaf Class 8 Questions And Answers Pdf Question 7.
second:
(i) Every second counts when we are writing an examination paper.
(ii) “Take the second turn on the right,” directed the policeman.

The Last Leaf 8th Standard Question 8.
object:
(i) The lawyer objected to what the witness said.
(ii) The objects on the table were taken away before the girl could see them properly.

1. Read the story and choose the appropriate meanings:

Question a.
Struggling artists:
(i) artists fighting with one another
(ii) artists trying hard to earn a living
(iii) artists painting war scenes
(ii) artists trying hard to earn a living

Question b.
Skeleton branches:
(i) bones branching out from joints
(ii) leafy branches
(iii) bare branches
(iii) bare branches

Question c.
Wielded the brush:
(i) painted skillfully
(ii) broke the brush
(iii) joined the broken brush
(i) painted skillfully

Question d.
Palette:
(i) the tip of the brush
(ii) a board used by artists to mix colours
(iii) a fancy dinner plate
(ii) a board used by artists to mix colours

Question e.
Masterpiece:
(i) a master who promotes peace
(ii) the very first creation of on artist
(iii) an exceptionally beautiful work of art
(iii) an exceptionally beautiful work of art

2. Make pairs of sentences to show the difference between the meanings of the following Homographs from the story:

Question a.
interest
(i) The bank promised a high rate of interest to its customers.
(ii) The audience soon lost interest in the boring match.

Question b.
well
(i) The well was so deep that one could not see the water.
(ii) The Principal sent Sumeet home as he was not feeling well.

Question c.
left
(i) When Roma turned to her left, she saw a long line of taxis.
(ii) The Mayor had left before it begem to rain.

Question d.
just
(i) The children had just left when the magician arrived.
(ii) It is the duty of a judge to be just.

Question e.
mind
(i) “Mind your language!” said the man to the rude young boy angrily.
(ii) We should try not to have any negative thoughts in our mind.

3. State the facts about the story:

Main characters:
Problem:
Climax / Turning point:
Problem solved:
End:
Main characters: Sue, Johnsy, the doctor and Behrman
Problem: Johnsy’s negative attitude, her lack of will to live and the fancy that she would die when the last leaf fell from the ivy vine.
Attempts made to solve it: The doctor informed Sue that Johnsy would recover only if she had the wish to live. Sue looked after her well and tried to make her think positively. Finally, Behrman painted a leaf on the wall so that the last leaf would never fall, and Johnsy would live.
Climax/Tuming point:
(i) When Johnsy sees the last leaf still clinging to the vine, and realizes that she has been given a message that she was wicked to want to die.
(ii) The sweeper finding Behrman in very wet clothes and shoes, with scattered brushes and a palette with yellow and green colors mixed on it.
Problem solved: Johnsy realizes her mistake and begins to look forward to life again.
End: Though Johnsy lives, Behrman, who painted the last leaf, contracts pneumonia due to exposure to rain and snow. He dies due to his efforts. He dies so that Johnsy lives.

4. Say whether the following statements are right or wrong:

Question a.
Sue and Johnsy were very close friends.
Right

Question b.
Sue was a rich girl.
Wrong

Question c.
Johnsy was hopeful that she will live.
Wrong

Question d.
Behrman was a hard-hearted person.
Wrong

Question e.
The last leaf fell off during the rain.
Right

Question f.
Johnsy realized that her thinking was wrong.
Right

Question g.
Behrman did not know anything about the last leaf on the ivy.
Wrong

5. Correct the following statements:

Question a.
Sue and Johnsy were good neighbours.
Sue and Johnsy were very good friends.

Question b.
Johnsy was eager to recover from her illness.
Johnsy had made up her mind that she was not going to recover.

Question c.
Sue ignored Johnsy completely.
Sue looked after Johnsy well.

Question d.
Behrman was a very heartless person.
Behrman was a very kind-hearted person.

Question e.
The real ivy leaf did not fall off at all.
The real ivy leaf fell off the night it rained and snowed.

Question f.
The last leaf was a real leaf that survived.
The last leaf was a leaf painted on the wall by Behrman.

6. Read the descriptions of the following from the story and describe any one of them using your own words:

Question 1.
The ivy vine
Outside the window there was an old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots. It had climbed half way up the brick wall. It had lost most of its leaves due to the cold autumn. Only a few bare branches were left, clinging to the bricks.

Question 2.
Behrman
Behrman was a struggling painter who lived on the ground floor of the building where Sue and Johnsy lived. He was a failure in art, for though he had been painting for forty years, he had not made any money. He always dreamt about painting a masterpiece, and often spoke about it, but had never got round to doing it. He served as a model for the young artists in the colony, who could not afford other models.

He was shocked when he heard about Johnsy’s fancy and thought that the place was not good for her. He was a generous, compassionate and kind- hearted man. Even though he was old, he braved the wind, rain and snow to go out and paint the last leaf on the wall. He died in order that Johnsy could live.

Question 3.
The last leaf that Johnsy saw
The last leaf that Johnsy saw was not a real leaf but a leaf painted on the wall by Behrman. It was dark green near its stem, but its edges were tinted with yellow. It hung from a branch some twenty feet above the ground. Naturally it never fluttered or moved when the wind blew. It was Behrman’s masterpiece and had been painted the night when the real last leaf had fallen.

7. You have learnt that a Clause is a group of words that has a Subject and a Verb, and is a part of a larger sentence:
In the sentence, ‘We returned home, when school was over’ there are two clauses.
(i) We returned home and
(ii) When school was over’.
The first one makes complete sense, so it is called Main I Principal Clause. The second one is not complete by itself. It depends on the Main Clause to convey proper sense. So it is called Dependant or Subordinate Clause. ‘When’ is the joining word, and it is called o Subordinator.

In the following sentences, point out the Main Clause and Subordinate Clause. Encircle the Subordinator.

Question a.
There was a colony, where many struggling artists lived.
Main Clause: There was a colony
Subordinate Clause: where many struggling artists lived
Subordlnator: where

Question b.
Though Sue looked after her well, Johnsy showed no signs of improvement.
Main Clause: Johnsy showed no signs of improvement
Subordinate Clause: Though Sue looked after her very well
Subordlnator: Though

Question c.
Sue thought that she had fallen asleep.
Main Clause: Sue thought
Subordinate Clause: that she had fallen asleep
Subordinator: that

Question d.
Old Behrman was a painter, who lived on the ground floor.
Main Clause: Old Behrman was a painter
Subordinate Clause: who lived on the ground floor
Subordlnator: who

Question e.
Johnsy was sleeping when the two went upstairs.
Main Clause: Johnsy was sleeping
Subordinate Clause: when the two went upstairs
Subordlnator: when

Question f.
I want to see the last one before it falls.
Main Clause: I want to see the last one
Subordinate Clause: before It falls
Subordlnator: before

8. Compose an imaginary dialogue between Sue and Johns, when I realise what Behrman had done for Johnsy:
Johnsy: Sue, did you know that Mr. Behrman had painted that last leaf?
Sue: No, I knew it just now, too.
Johnsy: Sue, that means that he got wet that night painting the last leaf!
Sue: And got pneumonia after that!
Johnsy: Yes, because of my stupid fancy that I would die when the last leaf fell.
Sue: It certainly was a stupid idea.
Johnsy: I feel so guilty now! Sue, it is as if …. as if …. he died for me!
Sue: Yes, so that you may live.
Johnsy: Oh, what a wonderful, compassionate man! To go out in that cold, wintry, snowy night just to paint that leaf!
Sue: And develop pneumonia ….
Johnsy: What can I do now? How can I ever thank him?
Sue: I know what you can do!
Johnsy: What? What?
Sue: Paint your masterpiece of the Bay of Naples and dedicate it to him.
Johnsy: Yes, I think that’s a good idea.Yes, I’ll do that. Thanks, Sue.

Class 8 English Chapter 3.3 The Last Leaf Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complex Factual Activities:

Question 1.
What did the doctor tell Sue about Johnsy?
The doctor told Sue that Johnsy had one chance in ten. That chance was for Johnsy to want to live, and Johnsy had made up her mind that she was not going to get well. He also told Sue that medicines alone would not help if the patient did not want to live.

Question 2.
Describe the ivy vine outside the window.
Outside the window, there was an old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots. It had climbed half way up the brick wall. It had lost most of its leaves due to the cold autumn. Only a few bare branches were left, clinging to the bricks.

Question 3.
Johnsy felt that when the last leaf fell off from the ivy vine, she too would die.

Question 4.
Who was Behrman? Explain why Sue called Him to their flat.
Behrman was a struggling painter who lived on the ground floor of the building where Sue and Johnsy lived. He served as a model for the young artists in the colony. Sue called him to their flat to act as a model for the old man that she was drawing.

Question 5.
What happened that night and what did the two friends see when the window was open?
That night it rained and snowed. A fierce wind blew. When the window was open, the two friends saw one ivy leaf still clinging to the vine. It was dark green near the stem, but its edges were tinted with yellow. It hung from a branch some twenty feet above the ground.

Question 6.
What did Johnsy declare when she saw the last ivy leaf?
When Johnsy saw the last ivy leaf, she declared that it would fall that day and she would die at the same time.

Question 7.
What change came over Johnsy the next day? Why?
Johnsy now felt that she had been wicked earlier and it was a sin to want to die. She wanted to sit up in bed and was ready to have broth and milk. She looked forward to the future and hoped to paint the Bay of Naples some day. It was the sight of the last leaf staying on the vine that was the reason for her change.

Question 8.
Explain what happened to Mr. Behrman.
Mr. Behrman had gone out in the rain and snow to paint the last leaf on the wall. He had got thoroughly wet and became ill with pneumonia. He died in a hospital two days later.

Question 9.
Who had saved Johnsy’s life and how?
Mr. Behrman had saved Johnsy’s life. He had realized that Johnsy had a fancy that she would die after the last leaf; fell. He wanted to make certain that the last J leaf never fell, and hence he painted a false leaf on the wall. The sight of the persistent leaf, which Johnsy thought was real, made her come to her senses and want to live.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
What type of attitude should a person have when he/she is ill?
When a person is ill, he/she should have a positive attitude. He/She should have cheerful thoughts and courage and try to keep the mind occupied. Only then will medication help.

Question 2.
Do you think that Johnsy was talking nonsense? Or did she have some forewarning that she would die?
I think that Johnsy was talking nonsense. How can the number of leaves on an ivy vine indicate when she was going to die? This is just having negative thoughts when the mind is idle and frightened.

Write who said the given words and to whom:

Question 1.

 The words Who said To whom (1) Open the window (2) She is very ill and weak (3) I have not heard of such a thing. (4) It is the last one.

 The words Who said To whom (1) Open the window Johnsy Sue (2) She is very ill and weak Sue Behrman (3) I have not heard of such a thing. Behrman Sue (4) It is the last one. Johnsy Sue

Write the words given below in the proper columns:

Question 1.
idiotic, fancy, foolish, weak, place, away, upstairs, work, rain, continuously,closed, window, fierce, bravely, branch,surely

 Nouns Adjectives Adverbs fancy, place, idiotic, away, work, rain, foolish, upstairs, window, weak, continuously, branch closed, bravely, fierce surely

Do as directed:

Pick out two words from the lesson whose first letter is silent.
pneumonia, gnarled.

Question 2.
Use the following phrase in your own sentence : above the ground
During monsoon, the clouds are just a few feet above the ground in Ooty.

Question 3.
Add two letters before the given word to form three separate words:
own
brown, crown, drown

Question 4.
Find out four hidden words from the given word:
twilight (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)
twilight: light, tight, wilt, tilt

Question 5.
Use the following word and its homophone in two separate sentences: earn
(i) It is difficult to earn a living if you are illiterate.
(ii) I placed the flowers in an urn and poured water into it.

Question 6.
Pick out the main clause and subordinate clause from the following sentence:
Medicines alone did not help if the patient did not wish to live.
Medicines alone did not help- the main clause if the patient did not wish to live-subordinate clause.

Question 7.
Rewrite in indirect speech :
“Open the window; I want to see,” she
ordered. Sue obeyed.
She ordered Sue to open the window as she wanted to see. Sue obeyed.

Question 8.
Pick out the non-finite verb and state what it is:
He always talked of his coming masterpiece.
coming – present participle

Question 9.
Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:
In those days, it was not easy to cure pneumonia patients.
In those days, it was difficult to cure pneumonia patients.

Question 10.
Rewrite using the positive form of the adjective:
They are falling faster now.
They were not falling as fast as before.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.5 The Happy Prince

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.5 The Happy Prince Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.5 The Happy Prince

Class 8 English Chapter 2.5 The Happy Prince Textbook Questions and Answers

2.5 The Happy Prince Warming Up:

1. There are different types of short stories. Use a dictionary/the Internet and find out what each of the following types refers to:

(a) fable :
(b) anecdote :
(c) fairy tale :
(d) parable :
(e) tragedy :
(f) humorous story :
(g) detective story :
(h) myth :
(a) fable: moral bearing story with animal characters.
(b) anecdote: short amusing account of an incident.
(c) fairy tale: having supernatural characters/a moral for children.
(d) parable: having religious base and a message or moral.
(e) tragedy: serious and ends in a tragedy.
(f) humorous story: causing laughter and amusement; comic.
(g) detective story: the plot revolves around the investigation and solving of a crime/s.
(h) myth: originated in ancient times, authorship unknown.

2. Have you heard of birds that fly from one part of the world to another in small or large flocks?
They are called Migratory birds. Discuss and write down two reasons why they migrate and return.
Migratory birds’ migrate for food and for warmth. They return when the food supplies in their home area stabilize and winter changes to summer again.

3. Speech or dialogues can be reported in two ways Direct and Indirect.
When the exact words of the speaker are reported we call it Direct Speech. When the exact words of the speaker are not reported, but just its contents we call it Indirect Speech.
Direct Speech: Amar said, “I shall come to meet you, tomorrow, Sanket.”
Indirect Speech: Amar told Sanket that he would go to meet him, the next day.
Note down the changes you observe in the Indirect Speech.

• There are no inverted commas in j Indirect Speech.
• The verb changes in Indirect ) Speech.
• There is a change in the adverb in Indirect Speech.
• The word‘that’is added in Indirect Speech.

1. Say whether these sentences are true or false and correct the false ones.

Question a.
The writer of the story is Wiiliam Blake.
False
The writer of the story is Oscar wilde

Question b.
Everyone admired the statue of the Happy Prince.
True

Question c.
The mother was working, when the Swallow brought the yellow jewel.
False
The mother was sleeping when the Swallow brought the yellow jewel.

Question d.
The two best things the servants brought to God were gold and jewel stones.
False
The two best things the servants brought to God were broken heart and dead bird.

2. Find from the story the Homophones of the following words:
(Words that sound, the same, but differ in spellings and meanings.)
a. weak
b. their
c. blew
d. seo
f. waste
g. know
h. knot
i. threw
j. right
a. weak – week
b. their – there
c. blew – blue
d. sea – see
f. waste – waist
g. know – no
h. knot – not
i. threw – through
j. right – write

Question a.
Where was the Happy Prince’s statue located?
The Happy Prince statue located high above the city.

Question b.
Why did the swallow decide to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night?
The Swallow decided to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night because it was high up, and so there was plenty of fresh air.

Question c.
The Prince was sad to see all unhappiess of the city.

Question d.
What was the first task given to the Swallow?
The Happy Prince asked the Swallow to take the great red jewel from his waist and give it to a poor woman whose son was ill and hungry. This was the Swallow’s first task.

Question e.
To whom did the Prince gift the two gemstones of his eyes?
The prince gave one of the two gemstones of his eyes to a Door little girl whose eggs had fallen to the ground and broken.

Question f.
What decision did the Swallow finally make? Was it a wise one? Comment.
The Swallow finally decided not to go to Egypt but to remain with the Happy Prince, whom he loved very much. It may not have been a wise decision because it led to the death of the Swallow, but it was a decision made from the heart and was an emotional decision that was rewarded in heaven.

Question g.
Why did the Swallow finally decide not to leave the Prince?
The Swallow finally decided not to leave the prince because he loved him very much.

Question h.
What message do you get from this story?
The message that we get from this story is that we should be loyal, generous, and compassionate. We will not only get peace when on earth but will also get appreciation and reward in heaven.

4. inflnitives, Participles, Gerunds:

(a) Infinitives
In the sentences ‘1 have to study’ and ‘ I must study’, ‘study’ is in the infinitive form, because it does not take -s, -es or -cd aller it even if the number or person of the Subject changes.
Infinitives are generally preceded by ‘to’ or sometimes by a modal auxiliary.

(b) Participles
In the sentences ‘She dived into the swimming pool’ and ‘The writing table is in a mess’ ‘Swimming’ and ‘writing’ are in the verb + ing form and function as Adjectives. These are Present Pcirticiples. In the sentences, ‘The police recovered the stolen jewels’ and ‘He bandaged his
bruised arm’, stolen and bruised are in the verb + en I ed form and function as Adjectives.

(c) Gerunds
In the sentences, ‘I love swimming’ and ‘Reading is a good habit’, the verb + ing form fuction as Nouns (as the Subject or Object). These are called Verbal Nouns or Gerunds.

Say whether the underlined are Infinitives/Participles (Present or Past) Gerunds.

2.5 The Happy Prince 8 Question 1.
I wish to go to Egypt.
Infinitive

The Happy Prince Question Answer Question 2.
They liked his written stories.
Participle(past)

The Happy Prince Class 8 Question Answer Question 3.
He is trying to finish a story.
Infinitive

The Happy Prince Questions And Answers Class 8 Question 4.
Suffering is stranger than anything.
Gerund

The Happy Prince Story Questions And Answers Question 5.
The dying swallow fell at his feet.
Participle(Present)

The Happy Prince Class 8 Solutions Question 6.
He began to cry.
Infinitive

Happy Prince Question And Answer Question 7.
He watched the working seamen
Participle(Present)

5. Write the following dialogues from the story in the Indirect Speech:

(a) ‘Who are you?’ asked the bird. ‘I am the Happy Prince.’
‘Then why are you crying? I am wet with your tears.’

(b) The Happy Prince looked very sad, and the little Swallow was sorry for him. ‘It is very cold here,’ he said ‘but I will stay with you for one night. Tomorrow I will take the jewel.’
‘Thank you, little bird,’ said the prince.

(c) ‘Little bird, little bird,’ said the prince, ‘please will you stay with me for one more night?’
‘My friends arc waiting for me.’ answered the bird.

(d) Under a bridge, two little boys were lying close together to keep warm.
‘We are so hungry!’ they said. ‘You cannot lie there!’ shouted a guard.

(e) ‘Goodbye, dear prince!’ he said.
‘I urn glad that you are going to Egypt,’ said the prince. ‘You have stayed too long.’I am not going to Egypt,’ said the Swallow. ‘I am going to the House of God’

6. Divide the story into parts. Make 4 groups in your class. Each group should take one of the 4 parts to convert the story into a play and enact your part.

7. If you could change the end of the story i.e. after the Swallow refused to fly to Egypt. how would you change it? Summarise your idea in 10 to 12 lines.

Summary of the idea : A MIRACLE

The Swallow, battling the bitter cold, refuses to fly to Egypt and continues to live with the prince to support him in his time of need. God sees this love and friendship among the two and decides to do something. He restores the prince to his glory. The Happy Prince becomes golden and beautiful once again and is admired by all. The little Swallow develops extra layers of feathers to protect him from the cold, and the two continue to live with each other. The prince continues to be generous, but his wealth never diminishes. The Swallow is his messenger and informant. They become immortal. The two realize that these miracles are the work of God and they look towards heaven to thank God.

8. Think of one of your favorite stories. Fill in the following facts about the story:

• Name of the story:
• Type of story:
• Setting (time and place):
• ImportQnt characters:
• Theme/Plot:
Conflict/Dilemmu:
• Solution:
• End:

• Name of the story: Pride and Prejudice
• Type of story: Romantic/Social
• Setting (time and place): the early 1800s in England
• Important characters: Elizabeth and Jane Bennet, Mrs. Bennet, Darcy.
• Theme/Plot: The emotional development of the main characters.
• Conflict/Dilemma: Darcy is rich and proud Elizabeth is strongly prejudiced against him. Their status and
• lifestyles differ. However, they are attracted to each other.
• Solution: How they overcome their prejudices and come together forms the main story of the novel.
• End: Darcy and Elizabeth overcome their prejudices and their true emotions come through. The end is a happy one with everything ending well.

Class 8 English Chapter 2.5 The Happy Prince Additional Important Questions and Answers

Say whether the following sentences are True or False and correct the false ones:

Question 1.
One night a little swallow flew over the city with his friends.
False
Corrected Sentence: One night a little l swallow flew alone over the city

Question 2.
The Happy Prince saw that the Swallow was crying.
False
Corrected Sentence: The Swallow saw that the Happy Prince was crying.

Question 3.
The Swallow felt sorry for the Happy Prince.
True

Complete the following:

Question 1.
The Happy Prince’s statue was located ______.
high above the city

Question 2.
The drops that fell on the swallow were ______.
the tears from the eyes of the Happy Prince

Question 3.
The Swallow decided to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night ; because ______.
it was high up, and so there was ; plenty of fresh air

Question 4.
to see all the unhappiness of the city

Question 5.
The first gift from the Happy Prince was _______.
a great red jewel from his waist

Question 6.
he Swallow felt warm because ______.
he had done a good thing

Question 7.
The clever man was surprised _____.
to see a swallow in the city in winter

Question 8.
The prince gave a _____ one of the two gemstones of his eyes.
poor writer

Question 9.
The writer was trying hard ________.
to complete the story

Question 10.
It was easy to get into the young man’s room because __________.
there was a hole in the roof

Question 11.
The Swallow refused to take off the other eye because _______.
then the prince would not be able to see

Question 11.
The prince gave one of the two gemstones of his eyes to _______.
a poor little girl whose eggs had fallen to the ground and broken

Question 13.
Use the word ‘see’ and its ’ homophones in a single sentence of your own.
sea-see: The children went all the way from Indore to Mumbai to see the sea.

Pick out the finite and non-finite verbs in the following sentence:

And he decided to fly away.
decided-finite verb;
to fly-non- finite verb.

Personal Response:

Have you ever observed statues and admired them? Name some.
I admire statues which Eire artistic or tell us a story. For example, some of the statues of Shivaji are very well carved, with all the details. However, most of the time j statues in India are neglected, and only ! serve as resting places for birds.

Give reasons:

Question 1.
The mother was forced to ignore her ailing son.
The mother was forced to ignore her ailing son as she did not have money to buy food, and could only give him water from the river. She was busy making a ; dress for one of the queen’s ladies. After doing this, she was so tired that she fell asleep.

Question 2.
What was the first task given to the Swallow?
The Happy Prince asked the Swallow to take the great red jewel from his waist and give it to a poor woman whose son was ill and hungry. This was the Swallow’s first task.

Question 3.
The Swallow wished to go to Egypt.
It was winter, and it would soon begin snowing. The Swallow would not be able to bear this cold weather. So, he wished to go to Egypt where the sun was warm and the leaves were green.

Find from the passage the Homophones of the following words:

2. threw

2. threw-through

Write the noun forms of the following words:

1. poor
2. flew
3. warm
4. ill

1. poverty
2. flight
3. warmth
4. illness

Complex Factual Activities:

Question 1.
Why was the writer unable to complete his story?
The writer was very cold, weak and hungry. There was no fire in his room. Due to all these reasons, he was unable to complete his story.

Question 2.
What did the writer conclude when he saw the blue jewel?
When the writer saw the blue jewel, he concluded that it was a gift from someone who had read and liked his books.

Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:

But he is very cold and he cannot write.
But he is very cold and he is unable to write.

Personal Response:

Have you seen birds migrating/flying in groups or information?
Yes, I have. I did not realize what it meant in the beginning, but later I saw a documentary film about migratory birds. I like the way they fly in a formation, all of them flying at the same speed. I often wonder how they know where to go and what to do.

Complete the table and write who said the given words and to whom:

Question 1.

 The words Who said them To whom (1) You cannot see now (2) She has no money to take home. (3) This is a beautiful piece of glass! (4) You must go to Egypt

 The words Who said them To whom (1) You cannot see now The Swallow The prince (2) She has no money to take home. The prince The Swallow (3) This is a beautiful piece of glass! The little girl The Swallow (4) You must go to Egypt The prince The Swallow

Complete the table:

Question 1.

 Positive Comparative Superlative strange beautiful dear wonderful

 Positive Comparative Superlative strange stranger strangest beautiful more beautiful most beautiful dear dearer dearest wonderful more wonderful most wonderful

Underline the pronouns in the following sentences:

Question 1.
She is selling eggs. her eggs have fallen on the ground and they are broken.
She is selling eggs. Her eggs have fallen on the ground and they are broken.

Question 2.
“I will stay with you,” repeated the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince’s feet.
“I will stay with you,” repeated the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince’s feet.

Personal Response:

How does the suffering of other people affect you?
I feel very bad when I see someone suffering. I don’t like to see even animals suffer, and I often have fights with boys who are cruel to animals. If I see someone suffering, I try to help them if it is possible. I plan to become a doctor when I grow up so that I can help those who are in pain.

Complete the table and write who said the given words to whom:

Question 1.

 The words Who said them To whom (1) You cannot lie there! (2) Yes, you have brought the right things.

 The words Who said them To whom (1) You cannot lie there! A guard Two little boys (2) Yes, you have brought the right things. God His servants

Complex Factual Activities:

Question 1.
Describe the sufferings that the Swallow discovered and reported to the prince.
The Swallow saw poor people sitting at the gate. He flew into the dark streets, where he saw hungry and sad children. Many children were cold and were treated badly by the guards in the city. These were the sufferings that the Swallow discovered and reported to the prince.

Question 2.
In what state did the important man in the city find the statue?
The important man in the city found the statue looking dull. The red stone and the gemstones of the eyes had disappeared. The statue was not golden any longer, and looked like that of a beggar. There was also a dead swallow at the feet of the statue.

Question 3.
Why did the servants of God take the broken heart and the dead bird to God?
The servants of God took the broken heart and the dead bird to God because they were the two best things in the city.

Question 4.
Why did the Swallow finally decide not to leave the prince?
The Swallow finally decided not to leave the prince because he loved him very much.

Question 5.
What decision did the Swallow ; finally make? Was it a wise one? Comment.
The Swallow finally decided not to go to Egypt but to remain with the Happy Prince, whom he loved very much. It may not have been a wise decision because it led to the death of the Swallow but it was a decision made from the heart, and was an emotional decision which was rewarded in heaven.

Question 6.
What, do you think, was the part of the statue which did not melt?
The part of the statue which did not melt was the heart of the Happy Prince.

Question 7.
What message do you get from this story?
The message that we get from this story is that we should be loyal,generous and compassionate. We will not only get peace when on earth but will also get appreciation and reward in heaven.

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Pick out two compound words from the lesson.
bedroom, daytime

Question 2.
Use the following phrase in your own sentence : to get in
The thief found it difficult to get in through the narrow opening.

Question 3.
Underline the non-finite verb and say what type it is :
The boy is crying and his mother is so unhappy.
The boy is crying and his mother is so unhappy.
crying – present participle

Question 4.
Find out four hidden words from the given word : (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)
flower
flower: lower, flow, wolf, wore

Question 5.
Use the following word and its homophone in a single sentence : heard
The lion heard the herd of buffaloes chasing him.

Question 6.
Rewrite using a clause in place of | the underlined phrase :
I played with my friends in a very beautiful garden.
I played with my friends in a garden which was very beautiful.

Question 7.
Rewrite as an affirmative \ sentence :
I did not know what lay on the other l side.
I was unaware of what lay on the j other side.

Question 8. Punctuate :
I will stay here he thought it is high up so there is plenty of fresh air :
“I will stay here,” he thought. “It is high up, so there is plenty of fresh air.”

Question 9.
Pick out the modal auxiliary and state its function :
I  must find another place.
I must find another place, (must- indicates compulsion.)

Question 10.
Identify the type of sentence:
Tell me what you see there.
Imperative sentence

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.1 Vocation

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.1 Vocation Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 2.1 Vocation

Class 8 English Chapter 2.1 Vocation Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up

1. Pick out the words that refer to ‘means of living’ and fill them in the web:
(profession / recreation / occupation /job / pastime / employment / hobby / career / entertainment /mission/ trade / business / sports / retirement / placement)

2. Using a good dictionary. find the shades of difference in the following:

2.1 Vocation Questions And Answers Question 1.
Profession
‘Profession’ refers to a paid occupation, especially one that involves pro-longed training and a formal qualification.

Vocation Poem Class 8 Questions And Answers Maharashtra Board Question 2.
Vocation
‘Vocation’ refers to an occupation for which a person is specially drawn or suited.

Vocation Poem Class 8 Questions And Answers Question 3.
‘Business’ refers to the activity of buying or selling goods or services; a commercial activity done by a person at his own risk.

Vocation Poem Class 8 Question 4.
Occupation
‘Occupation’ refers to a person’s usual or principal work or business, especially as a means of earning a living.

3. When a word is formed from a sound associated with it, it is called an Onomatopoetic Word.

For example : bang, tap, tinkle. crash, whistle etc.
If an Onomatopoetic word occurs in the lines of a poem, the Figure of Speech in that line is Onomatopoeia.
Write down eight to ten Onomatopoetic words on your own.

1. buzz
2. whoosh
3. clang
4. chirp
5. clap
6. howl
7. hiss
8. grunt
9. purr
10. quack

1. Which of the following words / phrases match in meaning to the underlined ones?
(a) deserted
(b) exposed to heat
(c) dirties the clothings
(d) no particular route
(e) following imaginary goals
(f) scolds and corrects

Vocation Poem Class 8 Questions And Answers State Board Question 1.
nobody takes him to task ………..
scolds and corrects

Vocation Question Answer Class 8 Question 2.
………. if he gets baked in the sun …………..
exposed to heat

Vocation Chapter 2.1 Question Answer Question 3.
………….chasing the shadows with my lantern ……………..
following imaginary goals

Class 6 English Vocation Questions And Answers Question 4.
The lane is dark and lonely ……………..
deserted

Class 6 English Vocation Question Answer Question 5.
………….. he soils his clothes with dust ………….
dirties the clothings

Question 6.
…………. There is no road he must take ………….
no particular route

2. Read the poem and fill in the table.

 Time of the day Location Poet’s Activity Hawker’s Activities Gardener’s Activities Watchman’s Activities Morning Afternoon Night

 Time of the day Location Poet’s Activity Hawker’s Activities Gardener’s Activities Watchman’s Activities Morning In the lane Walking to school Selling Bangles Afternoon Near the poet’s house Walking home from school Digging the ground Night The poet’s home Watching thr watchman from his bed. Walking up and down the street.Swinging his latern.

Question a.
What could be the age group of the speaker in the poem?
The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy.

Question b.
What is the difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper?
The difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper is that a hawker does not have a fixed shop. He goes from street to street selling his wares. A shopkeeper has a fixed shop and people who want to buy his goods must go to his shop.

Question c.
How do parents react when they see children soil their clothes in dust and heat?
When parents see their children exposed to heat or soil their clothes in the dust, they scold them and stop them from doing it.

Question d.
Why is the street light compared to a one-red-eyed-giant?
The street light is very tall and has a single red light at the top. Hence it is compared to a giant with one red eye.

Question e.
What exactly does the speaker in the poem crave for?
The speaker in the poem, who is a young school-going boy, craves for complete freedom to do whatever he wants and whenever he wants. He wants freedom from authority. He wants to lead a carefree life.

Question f.
Does the poet really wish to become a hawker/gardener/watchman? Justify your response.
The poet does not really wish to become a hawker/gardener/watchman. He is childish and sees only what he thinks is their ‘carefree’ life. He does not see the difficulties. He actually only craves for complete freedom from authority.

4. Say why the speaker of the poem wishes to be:

Question a.
Hawker:
The speaker in the poem feels that there is nothing to hurry the hawker. There is no fixed road he must travel by, no place that he must go to and no time when he must get back home. The speaker feels he is lucky and hence he wishes to be a hawker. It means that the speaker wants to be free to do what he wants and go where he wants to, without any restrictions.

Question b.
Gardener:
The speaker in the poem sees that the gardener in the nearby house is digging the ground. He does what he likes with his spade. He is free to get his clothes soiled with mud, get baked in the sun or get wet. No one scolds him. Hence the speaker wishes to be a gardener so that he is able to enjoy freedom in the open without any restrictions.

Question c.
Watchman:
The speaker is in his bed Through the open window, he can see the watchman walking up and down the dark and lonely street with a lantern in his hand. The speaker is resentful that he has to go to bed. He thinks that the watchman never goes to bed in his life. Hence he wishes to become a watchman and walk up and down in the dark street at night, having fun chasing the shadows with his lantern

5. Pick outlines that contain Alliteration. Simile, Repetition, Onomatopoeia:

(a) Alliteration:
(i) ‘I can see through the gate the gardener digging the ground.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’ and ‘g’.
(ii) ‘He does what he likes with his spade, he soils his clothes…’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘h’.
(iii) ‘nobody takes him to task’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’.

(b) Simile:
‘The street lamp stands like a giant with one red eye in its head.’ The street lamp is directly compared to a giant, using the word ‘like’.

(c) Repetition:
(i) The words ‘Bangles, crystal bangles’ are repeated to create images in our mind of the hawker.
(ii) The words ‘no’ and ‘nobody’ are repeated for emphasis.

(d) Onomatopoeia:
‘the gong sounds ten’ : the word ‘gong’ is an onomatopoeic word formed from the sound associated with it.

6. Some poets do not use uniformity in rhyming words, nor a steady rhythm. Such poems with no uniformity in rhyme, rhythm, length of lines, or stanzas are called Free Verse. Walt Whitman, Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, Rabindranath Tagore are some famous poets who have composed poems in Free Verse.
A quick glance at the poem Vocution’ reveals that the style used by Tagore is Free Verse.
Now turn the pages of your textbook and see if you can find other poems in Free Verse.

7. ‘occupation/profession/business would you like to take up in the future?
Prepare a fact file for the same using the following points.

1. Name of the vocation / profession / business ……….
2. Educational qualifications required ………..
3. Work profile/description………..
5. our personal skills/talents for the choice …………..

1. Name of the vocation/profession/business: Engineering
2. Educational qualifications required: B.E/B.Tech
3. Work profile/description: Setting up of projects/setting up plants/inventing new instruments and machines
4. Opportunities for advancement: Excellent in a developing country like India
5. Your personal skills/talents for the choice: My interest in seeing how various machines work and my talent in repairing simple instruments.

8. Read and understand the following poem paper Boats’ and write its paraphrase in your own simple language. (You may take the help of a dictionary or the internet.) The first line is done for you.
(Day after day. one after another. I sail paper boats on the stream of flowing water.)

Paper Boats

Day after day, one after another, I sail paper boats on the stream of flowing water. I write my name and the name of my village on the boats in big black letters. I hope that someone in some strange land will find them and know who I am. I fill my little boats with ‘shiuli’ flowers and hope that these flowers which I have picked at dawn will be carried safely to land in the night.

I set my paper boats in motion and look up at the sky. The little clouds have white bulging tails behind them that look like the sails of a boat. I do not know if there is a young child like me up in the sky, who wants to play with me, and sends his boats down through the air to race with my boats.
When it is night, I bury my face in my arms and dream that my paper boats are floating in the air under the stars at midnight. The fairies who bring sleep are sailing in them, and they are filling their baskets with dreams.

Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the complete sentence:

The hawker is advertising aloud for selling metal bangles/crystal bangles.
The hawker is advertising aloud for selling crystal bangles.

Vocation Poem Class 6 Question 2.
The narrator/The gardener is scolded if he gets dirty.
The narrator is scolded if he gets dirty.

Vocation Std 8 Questions And Answers Question 3.
The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy/an adult going to work.
The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy.

Complete the following:

Question 1.
The difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper is _____.
that a hawker does not have a fixed shop. He goes from street to street selling his wares. A shopkeeper has a fixed shop and people who want to buy his goods must go to his shop

Question 2.
When parents see their children exposed to heat or soil their clothes in the dust, they ________.
scold them and stop them from doing it.

Question 3.
The watchman is accompanied by _______.

Question 4.
The street lamp appears to be _______.
a giant with one red eye in its head.

Question 5.
Analysis/Appreciation Of The Poem

1. Poem and poet: ‘Vocation’ by Rabindranath Tagore
3. Tone: direct; full of craving
4. Structure and stanzas: Stanzas of unequal length; the number and length of lines vary.
5. Rhyme and Rhythm: No rhymes or rhythm; the poem is in Free Verse.
6. Language and Imagery: Simple and direct; vivid images of the hawker, the j gardener and the watchman.
7. Figures of Speech: Alliteration, Simile, Repetition, Onomatopoeia.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 13 Fulfillment of Struggle for Independence

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 13 Fulfillment of Struggle for Independence Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 13 Fulfillment of Struggle for Independence

Class 8 History Chapter 13 Fulfillment of Struggle for Independence Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Fulfillment Of Struggle For Independence Question 1.
There were more than six hundred small and big …………….. in India.
(a) states
(b) villages
(c) princely states
(d) cities
(c) princely states

Fulfillment Of Struggle For Independence Class 8 Question 2.
All the princely states merged with India except the states of Junagad, ……………. and Kashmir.
(a) Aundh
(b) Jhansi

2. Explain the following statements with reasons :

Struggle Chapter 13 Question 1.

1. Junagad was a princely state in Saurashtra.
2. The Nawab of Junagad wanted to merge the state with Pakistan.
3. It was opposed by the people vigorously as they wanted the merger with India.
4. Due to this, the Nawab fled to Pakistan and Junagad was merged with India in February, 1948.

13 Fulfillment Of Struggle For Independence Question 2.
The Indian government started police action against the Nizam.

1. Hyderabad State Congress passed a resolution for a merger of Hyderabad state with India in July 1947.
2. The Nizam took an anti-India stand and tried for a merger with Pakistan.
3. The Razakar organisation of Kasim Rizvi committed atrocities on Hindus as well as Muslims who supported the democratic movement.
4. The Nizam did not respond to the appeal of the Government of India for peaceful negotiations.
5. At last, the Government of India started police action on 13 September, 1948 and the state of Hyderabad was merged with India.

Class 8 History Chapter 13 Questions And Answers Question 3.
Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession with India.

1. Hari Singh the ruler of Kashmir, had decided to retain the independence of Kashmir.
2. Pakistan was keen to secure the merger of Kashmir with itself.
3. So, Pakistan began to put pressure on Hari Singh for this purpose.
4. At the instigation of Pakistan, the armed intruders attacked Kashmir in October, 1947.

Therefore, Hari Singh signed the ‘Instrument of Accession’ with India.

3. Answer the following in Brief:

Question 1.
Explain the contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the integration of the Princely States in India.

1. The problem of the merger of the princely states was very tactfully handled by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the then Home Minister of India.
2. He convinced the Princes that the merger of their states with India was in their interest.
3. He prepared the ‘Instrument of Accession’, acceptable to all.
4. The Princes accepted the proposal and all the states except Junagad, Kashmir and Hyderabad were merged with India.
5. These three states, too, were merged with India subsequently.
6. Thus, he took a firm stand and solved the issue of merger of princely states.

Question 2.
Explain the contribution of Swami Ramananda Tirth in the struggle for liberation of Hyderabad.

1. Hyderabad was the largest princely state in India.
2. The autocratic ruler, Nizam had denied civil and political rights to the people.?
3. In 1938, Swami Ramananda Tirth formed Hyderabad State Congress.
4. As Nizam banned his organisation, a struggle began for getting recognition to Hyderabad State Congress and democratic rights.
5. In July, 1947 a resolution was passed by the Hyderabad State Congress for its merger with India.
6. Swami Ramananda Tirth was assisted by Narayan Reddy and Siraj-ul-Hasan Tirmiji in his efforts.

Project:

Gather information and pictures related to the struggle for liberation of Hyderabad. Organise a Poster Exhibition based on it in the history department.

Class 8 History Chapter 13 Fulfillment of Struggle for Independence Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
Due to the influence of …………….., there was beginning of political awakening among the princely states.
(a) Champaranya Satyagraha
(b) Civil Disobedience Movement
(c) Non-Co-operation Movement
(d) Quit India Movement
(c) Non-Co-operation Movement

Question 2.
Junagadh was a princely state in ……………… .
(a) Kutch
(b) Saurashtra
(c) South Gujarat
(d) East Gujarat
(b) Saurashtra

Question 3.
Through ‘Vande Mataram’ movement ……………… participated in the struggle for liberation of Hyderabad.
(a) farmers
(b) workers
(c) students
(d) Nizam’s army
(c) students

Question 4.
……………… is celebrated as ‘Marathwada Mukti Din’.
(a) 13 September
(b) 19 December
(c) 2 August
(d) 17 September
(d) 17 September

Question 5.
There was significant contribution of ……………… Samaj in the Hyderabad Mukti Sangram.
(a) Arya
(b) Satyashodhak
(c) Brahmo
(d) Prarthana
(a) Arya

Question 6.
The youth of Azad Gomantak Dal made an armed attack and liberated the territories of ……………… from Portuguese rule.
(a) Diu and Daman
(b) Goa
(d) Chandianagai and Mahe

Question 7.
In 1949, France held a plebiscite in ………………
(a) Mahe
(b) Karaikal
(c) Puducheri
(d) Chandranagar
(d) Chandranaga

Question 8.
……………… was an aggressive leader in this struggle for liberation of Goa.
(a) Swami Ramananda Tilth
(b) Govindbhai Shioff
(d) Babasaheb Paianjpe

Name the following:

Question 1.
Founder of ‘Razakar’ in Princely state of Hyderabad.
Kasim Rizvi

Question 2.
Swami Ramananda Tirth

Question 3
Founder of Goa Congress Committee.
Dr. T.B. Cunha

Question 4.
Took a firm stand in solving the issue of Princely States.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Answer the following questions in one sentence :

Question 1.
Which European powers had control over some parts of India after Independence?
The Portuguese and French powers had control over some parts of India after Independence.

Question 2.
What are Praja Mandals?
People formed organisations like Prajamandals which worked for people’s interests in the princely states and for securing political rights for them.

Question 3.
Which languages were spoken in the princely state of Hyderabad?
Telugu, Kannada and Marathi were the languages spoken in the princely state of Hyderabad.

Question 4.
What is ‘Operation Polo’?
Indian government started the police action against the Nizam to merge the princely state of Hyderabad with India. It was symbolically called ‘Operation Polo’.

Question 5.
Which organisations were formed by people to secure civil and political rights in princely state of Hyderabad?
To secure civil and political rights in Hyderabad princely state, people formed organisations such as Andhra Parishad in Telangana region, Maharashtra Parishad in the Marathwada region and Karnataka Parishad in the Karnataka region.

Do as Directed :

Complete the concept map :

Question 1.

Question 2.

Show the events during merger of Hyderabad princely states on timeline:

Question 1.

Answer the following in Brief :

Question 1.
The contribution of Marathwada in the liberation of Hyderabad is as follows :

1. To secure civil and political rights of the people in the region, MaharashtraParishad was formed.
2. Many eminent leaders like Ved Prakash, Govind Pansare, etc. from Marathwada led the Hyderabad liberation struggle.
3. Through ‘Vande Mataram’ Movement many students participated in the movement.
4. Many sacrificed their lives in this historical struggle.

Question 2.
Why was the struggle for independence not over in spite of India gaining independence?

1. When India got independence, there were more than six hundred princely states.
2. The French and Portuguese powers too controlled some parts of India.
3. It was essential to merge these regions with India.

Therefore, the struggle for independence continued in spite of India gaining independence.

Question 3.
Write about the contribution of Dr. T. B. Kunha for the liberation of Goa.

1. Dr. T. B. Kunha was in the forefront of the struggle to liberate Goa from the Portuguese rule.
2. He worked to bring about awakening among the people against the Portuguese Government.
3. With an objective of carrying out the struggle, he founded the Goa Congress Committee.
4. He founded the Goa Youth League in Mumbai in 1945.
5. He entered Goa in 1946 and was sentenced to eight years imprisonment for the violation of the ban on public speeches.

Explain the following statements with reasons :

Question 1.
Merger of the Princely States was essential.

1. When India got independence there were more than six hundred princely states in India.
2. If the princely states had remained independent, India would have been split into hundreds of territorial fragments.
3. The dream of Indian National Congress of undivided India would have remained incomplete.
4. Moreover, the organisations in the princely states had started movements to secure rights.
5. It was necessary to free the people from the autocratic rule in the princely states.
6. Some princely states started carrying out movements for merging with Pakistan.

Question 2.
All India States People’s Conference was formed in 1927.

1. There was political awakening among the people of princely states due to influence of non-co-operation movement.
2. Praja Mandals were formed to secure the political rights for the people in the Princely states and to work for their interest.
3. All the Praja Mandals came together and formed an “All India States People’s Conference, in 1927 which gave an impetus to the freedom movement.

Question 3.
Many organisations were formed in the Hyderabad Princely State.

1. There were Telugu, Kannada and Marathi speaking regions in princely state of Hyderabad.
2. There was absence of civil and political rights under the autocratic rule of the Nizam.
3. To secure these rights organisations were formed in the princely states of Hyderabad.

Question 1.
Give information about Goa Liberation Movement.

1. Portuguese refused to hand over territories under its possession to India.
2. Dr. T. B. Kunha was in the forefront to lead the struggle.
3. He formed the organisation like ‘Goa Congress Committee’ and ‘Goa Youth League’.
4. He worked to bring about an awakening of the people against the Portuguese government.
5. He was arrested and imprisoned in 1946 for violating a ban on public speeches.
6. Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia started a Satyagraha for liberation of Goa.
7. He was deported by the Portuguese as he violated a ban and delivered a public speech at Madgaon in Goa in 1946.
8. The youths of the Azad Gomantak Dal liberated Dadra and Nagar Haveli from the Portuguese rule on 2 August, 1954.
9. The Portuguese rulers committed unlimited tyranny and atrocities on the Satyagrahis sent by Goa Mukti Samiti from Maharashtra in 1954.
10. As the negotiations between the Government and the Portuguese did not succeed, the Indian government unwillingly took the decision of using military force.
11. On 19 December, 1961, Goa was finally liberated from the dominion of the Portuguese.

Question 2.
How was the integration of the French occupied territories brought about?

1. Even after the independence of India, the regions of Chandranagar, Puduchcheri, Karaikal, Mahe and Yaman were in the possession of the French.
2. People were keen to merge with India.
3. The Indian Government demanded that these territories should be handed over to it.
4. In 1949, the French-occupied territory of Chandranagar was transferred to India in view of the result of the plebiscite undertaken there.
5. Thereafter, the remaining territories in the French possession were also handed over to India without any problem.

Question 3.
What would have happened if the Princely States would not have merged with India?
Had the Princely States remained independent, the following could have been the result :

1. The people in the princely states would never have got freedom and they would have faced injustice.
2. The feeling of unity would have never developed among Indians due to the independent princely states.
3. They would have created trouble in the development of India.
4. Even the boundaries of India would not have remained safe.
5. Injustice on the population, encroachment by the princely states and many other issues would have risen.
6. Thus, It would have threatened the peace and security of India.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.1 The Plate of Gold

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.1 The Plate of Gold Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 3.1 The Plate of Gold

Class 8 English Chapter 3.1 The Plate of Gold Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

1. Stories can be told even in the form of poetry. Such poems are called Narrative poems. Narrative poems do not always follow rhythmic patterns ola fixed rhyme scheme. Such poems are written ¡na style culled ‘Free Verse.’Recall and name some narrative poems you have done/read earlier.
Students can discuss and think about the narrative poems in Free Verse done/read earlier e.g. ‘Vocation’ by Rabindranath Tagore.

2. Read the poem below and fill in the gaps, choosing appropriate pairs of rhyming words, to make them meaningful.

little things

Little drops of water,
Little groins of …………
Make the mighty ocean
And the pleasant …………
Thus the little minutes,
Humble though they ………..
Make the mighty ages
Of …………
Little deeds of kindness,
Little words of ………..
Make this earth an Eden,
Like the heaven a ………..

Little things

Little drops of water,
Little grains of sand
Make the mighty ocean
And the pleasant land.
Thus the little minutes,
Humble though they be,
Make the mighty ages
Of eternity.
Little deeds of kindness,
Little words of love
Make this earth an Eden,
Like the heaven above.

What important messue does the aboe poem convey?
It conveys the message that even little acts and gestures are important.We must not think that something is unimportant or insignificant just because it is small.

1. Pick out words from the poem to complete the sentences meaningfully:

Question a.
Stephen Hawking was a ________(famous) Astrophysicist.
Renowned.

Question b.
Proclamation.

Question c.
Everyone stood _______ (horrified) when the terrible accident took place.
aghast.

Question d.
She _________(bargained) with the hawker to reduce the price.
wrangled.

Question e.
Handicapped people should never be ______ (ignored and avoided)
shunned.

2. Make a list of archaic words from the poem and give their modern equivalents.

 Archaic words Modern equivalents Wondrous wonderful Loveth loves Dropt dropped writ written bestowed presented

3. Rearrange the following in the proper order and insert them into a flow chart as per the poem:

(a) The plate turned to lead, when it was gifted to false-hearted claimants.
(b) Many claimants donated their wealth to receive the plate of gold.
(e) For almost two years, no clQimants received the plate of gold.
(d) A plate of gold fell in a temple from Heaven.
(e) The peasant offered comfort and courage to a blind miserable beggar. whom all had ignored.
(f) The priests announced that the one who loved God most of all, would receive the gift from Heaven.
(g) When the priest gave the plate of gold to that peasant, it shone with thrice its lustre.
(h) A simple peasant, who had nothing to offer, came to that temple.

4. Which two sayings about God are conveyed through the poem bThe Plate of Gold’?
(a) God helps those, who help themselves.
(b) God loves those, who love their fellow beings.
(c) God loves those, who give away their wealth, to please Him.
(d) Service to mankind is service to God.
(b) God loves those, who love their fellow beings.
(d) Service to mankind is service to God.

5. ‘But the peasant bowed and prayed to God ‘ What could he have prayed for?
The peasant must have prayed for the well-being of all human beings and asked God to help everyone to bear their troubles bravely.

6. Imagine that you are the peasant. Compose a short prayer to God, after having received the plate of gold. Write it using stylish handwriting.

7. Read other poems by Leigh Hunt. especially ‘Abou Ben Adhem’. Compare the messages in that poem with those in ‘The Plate of Gold’. What do you
observe?

Class 8 English Chapter 3.1 The Plate of Gold Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complete the web:

Question 1.

Name the following:

The Plate Of Gold Questions And Answers Question 1.
the priests

3.1 The Plate Of Gold Questions And Answers Question 2.
a plate of gold

3.1 The Plate Of Gold Question 3.
People assembled at this time:
midday

The Plate Of Gold Question Answer Question 4.
The plate became this again when it touched the floor:
gold

Complete the following:

The Plate Of Gold Questions And Answers Std 8 Question 1.
The plate of gold could be claimed by _______.
the person who loved his fellow beings the best

The Plate Of Gold Poem Questions And Answers Question 2.
The priests gifted the plate of gold to ______.
a man who within the year had distributed his whole estate among the poor

The Plate Of Gold Class 8 Question 3.
The poor peasant offered the blind beggar _____.
sincere pity and love.

Question 1.
What magical occurrence shocked the people?
The golden plate turned to lead when touched by the man, and became gold again when it fell on the floor.
This magical occurrence shocked the people.

Question 2.
Pick out an example of Alliteration from the extract.
‘A wondrous plate of gold, whereon these words were writ’. Repetition of the sound of ‘w’.

Question 3.
Pick out an example of Simile from the extract.
‘The news ran as swift as light.’ The movement of the news is directly compared to the movement of light.

Question 4.
Pick out an example of Onomatopoeia from the extract.
‘……… drop it clanging on the floor’. The word ‘clanging’ indicates sound.

Question 5.
Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.
‘……… the priests in solemn council sat and heard’. The correct prose order is: the priests sat and heard in solemn council.

Write if the following sentences are True or False:

Question 1.
The priests did not award the plate to anyone.
False

Question 2.
There were very few beggars near the temple gate.
False

Question 3.
The beggars got a lot of alms.
True

Question 4.
The peasant was well aware of the race for the plate.
False

Give reasons:

Question 1.
Many beggars had collected outside the temple.
The golden plate from Heaven was to be bestowed on the person who loved his fellow beings the most. The people who came to the temple would want to prove their love by giving alms. Hence many beggars had collected outside the temple to receive the bountiful alms.

Question 2.
The pilgrims to the temple showered coins on the beggars.
The golden plate from Heaven was to be bestowed on the person who loved his fellow beings the most. In order to prove that their love was the best and hence they were worthy of the plate, the pilgrims to the temple showered coins on the beggars.

Question 3.
What did the pilgrims fail to do?
The pilgrims failed to see the unhappiness in the eyes of the beggars.

Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns in Column B:

Question 1.

 A B (1) maimed (a) hands (2) outstretched (b) pity (3) simple (c) beggars (4) sweet (d) peasant

1. maimed – beggars
2. outstretched – hands
3. simple – peasant
4. sweet – pity

Activities based on Poetic Devices:

Question 1.
Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.
‘So for another twelve months sat the priests and judged.’ The correct prose order is: So for another twelve months the priests sat and judged.

Question 2.
Pick out an example of Repetition from the extract.
‘Thrice they awarded thrice did Heaven refuse the gift.’ The word thrice is repeated for emphasis and rhythm.

Complete the following:

Question 1.

Give reasons:

Question 1.
God had chosen the simple peasant as the most deserving of the plate of gold.
The simple peasant offered the blind beggar sincere sympathy and love, which came from the depth of his heart.
He had no hidden motive for what he did. Hence God chose him as the most deserving of the plate of gold.

Question 2.
‘But the peasant bowed and prayed to God What could he have prayed for?
The peasant must have prayed for the well-being of all human beings, and asked God to help everyone to bear their troubles bravely

Question 3.
Make a list of archaic words from the extract and give their modem equivalents:

 Archaic words Modem equivalents thou You thy Your o’er Over thine yours lovest loves

Question 4.
Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.
And took both palms in his, and softly said.
The correct prose order should be: And took both palms in his, and said softly

Analysis/Appreciation of the Poem

• Poem and poet: The Plate of j Gold’ by James Henry Leigh Hunt.
• Theme: God loves those who love their fellow beings Service to mankind is service to God.
• Tone: A narrative, serious and moralistic.
• Structure and stanzas: No uniformity in stanzas or the length of lines.
• Rhyme and Rhythm: No rhyme scheme or rhythm; free verse.
• Language and Imagery: Archaic language; plenty of imagery, especially when describing the peasant and the beggar.
• Figures of Speech: Inversion, Repetition, Onomatopoeia, and Simile.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Science Solutions Chapter 2 Health and Diseases

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Science Solutions Chapter 2 Health and Diseases Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Science Solutions Chapter 2 Health and Diseases

Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Health and Diseases Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Distinguish between- Infectious and non – infectious diseases.

 Infectious diseases Non-infectious diseases 1. The diseases which can be transmitted from one patient to other person are called infectious diseases. 1. The diseases which cannot be transmitted from one patient to other person, are called non-infectious diseases. 2. Contaminated air, water, food or carrier! vector animals or insects spread the infectious diseases. 2. Non-infectious diseases are not transmitted through any medium. 3. infectious diseases are acute diseases as they are suddenly caused due to infections from either bacteria, virus or protozoan. Thus, their symptoms are seen sooner. 3. Some non-infectious diseases are due to hereditary causes, some are a clue to failure in metabolism, some due to deficiency of the nutrients. Their symptoms are not seen suddenly but are developed gradually. 4. Antibiotics or antihelminth medicines are used to treat the infectious diseases. E.g. Tuberculosis, hepatitis, leprosy, cough and cold, etc. 4. Antibiotics cannot be used for treating non-infectious diseases. These diseases have a proper treatment. E.g. Diabetes, cancer, heart diseases, etc.Tuberculosis, hepatitis, leprosy, cough and cold, etc.

2. Identify the odd term.

Question a.
Malaria, hepatitis, elephantiasis, dengue.
Hepatitis (All other diseases are caused by the carrier mosquito.)

Question b.
Plague, AIDS, Cholera, T.B.
AIDS [All others are bacterial (caused by bacteria) diseases.]

3. Answer in one to two sentences.

Question a.
Which are various media of spreading the infectious diseases?
Infectious diseases spread through contaminated air, water, food, vectors such as insects, animals and man.

Question b.
Give the names of five non-infectious diseases other than given in the lesson.
Asthma, cataract, diseases of kidney such as kidney stones and renal failure, arthritis, Alzheimer which is a condition during old age, hypertension, migraine, etc.

Question c.
Which are the main reasons of diabetes and heart diseases?
Improper lifestyle, wrong type of diet, lack of exercise, excessive mental stress and strain, imbalance in secretion of hormones, etc. are the main reasons for diabetes and heart diseases.

4. What can be achieved/can be prevented?

Question a.
Drinking boiled and filtered water.

1. When water is boiled, all the disease causing pathogens present in it are killed.
2. Different diseases like cholera, enteritis, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid are caused by such water-borne pathogens.
3. If we boil the water we are protected against all such diseases.
4. If the i water is filtered we can avoid infections from nematode Dracunculus which causes Naru. By boiling and filtering water, even the epidemics by such infectious diseases can be controlled.

Question b.
Avoiding smoking and alcoholism.
1. Smoking and alcoholism are two dangerous habits that cause addictions. Alcoholism causes disorders of liver.
2. The addict suffers from malnourishment.

3. His I mental and psychological conditions become abnormal. There is social and familial) impacts too due to alcoholistn.

4. Smoking is an invitation for cancer. In cigarettes/ bidis, there is hazardous nicotine. Nicotine is not only toxic but is also carcinogenic. Cancers of oral cavity, tongue, respiratory tract, lungs is very common among smokers. Therefore, addictions like smoking and alcoholism should always be avoided.

Question c.
Regular balanced diet and exercise.
1. Regular and balanced diet results into perfect health. The disease fighting power or immunity of a person is increased due to healthy diet.
2. One can avoid of frequent infections and also mental well¬being is established.
3. Heart disease, diabetes, obesity, etc. can be avoided by not consuming high caloric junk food.
4. Exercise improves blood circulation. Many disorders which are caused by faulty lifestyle can be prevented by having regular balanced diet and exercise, thus one must always follow these for well-being.

Question d.
Proper checking of blood before blood donation.
1. There are definite blood groups.
2. During blood transfusion, the donor’s and recipient’s blood should be well-matched with each other. Otherwise, blood gets clumped inside the body of recipient.
3. Through infected blood, the viruses such as those causing hepatitis B or AIDS are transmitted to other healthy persons. Thus, for prevention of transmission of such diseases, blood should be checked before blood donation.

Master X’ is a 3-year-old child. He is living with his family in a slum. The public toilet is present near his house. His father is drunkard. His mother does not know the importance of balanced diet.

Question a.
Master ‘X’ can suffer from which different possible diseases in above conditions?
Master ‘X’ stays in an area which is devoid of cleanliness. The public toilet is near his house. This indicates that he will have to fight against many infectious diseases. Because his father is a drunkard, there will always be a dearth of money in r the house. He may not be able to afford, enough and balanced food. Thus his diet must be deficient in vitamins and minerals.

Moreover, his mother is ignorant about the importance of health and a balanced diet. This must be causing Master ‘X’ malnourishment and loss of immunity. The financial conditions and the addition of the father must be causing stress in the house.

This will further add stress on Master ‘X’ resulting into susceptibility to infections. As it is due to the location the germs are around and thus they may be attacking Master ‘X’. He will on and off suffer from digestive disorders! such as typhoid, hepatitis, cholera, enteritis, etc.

Question b.
How will you help him and his family in this situation?
Initially, we shall help Master ‘X’ to procure healthy and balanced diet having fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. His mother will be taught importance of the balanced diet. The surroundings should be clean and hygienic. Food should be covered, houseflies should not be allowed to contaminate the food. Germicidal floor cleaners and disinfectants should be used to keep off the houseflies and cockroaches. His father will be taken to de-addiction centres such as ‘Alcoholics Anonymous’. He will be persuaded to leave alcoholism.

Question c.
Which disease can occur to the i father of master ‘X’?
Father of Master ‘X’ can develop diseases of liver and kidney.

6. Give the preventive measures of following diseases:

Question a.
Dengue:
Dengue is transmitted through bite of mosquito of Aedes aegypti. DEN-1, 2 virus belonging to the type – flavivirus is the causative pathogen for Dengue. Wherever there is stagnant or accumulated water, there is possibility of mosquito breeding. Therefore, care is to be taken to drain of such water. Thus this is a very important preventive measure. Especially, in the man¬made containers and in clean water, the Aedes mosquito prefers to breed.

Therefore, such water storages should be either covered or should be decanted. Another way to keep off from dengue is to increase our immunity to fight against the virus. There is vaccine called CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia which is synthesised in 2017. But it is still not considered to be completely safe.

Question b.
Cancer:
The most important preventive measure is to remain away from the carcinogenic substances. Tobacco, gutkha, cigarette, bidi, etc. are addictive things which are very bad for our health. The nicotine present in these cause cancers of oral cavity and of respiratory system. Radiations can also cause cancer.

We should not expose ourselves to hazardous radiations. Balanced and healthy diet, proper exercise and living stress free with mental balance are some of the preventive measures of the cancer. Only for few types of cancer like cervical cancer in women, vaccine has been developed.

Question c.
AIDS:
When blood transfusion is done, the blood should be checked for the presence of HIV. The used syringes, needles, etc. should not be used without sterilization. Through blood and blood products and body fluids HIV finds its way into the body. Therefore, these precautions should be taken. Unsafe sexual contact is the most important mode of transmission of HIV. Thus one should never deal with such dangerous acts. Awareness about AIDS and HIV is the real preventive measure.

7. Explain the importance.

Question a.
Balanced diet.
The diet that contains all the nutrients in the balanced proportion is called balanced diet. One can avoid malnutrition by taking balanced diet. The immunity increases due to balanced diet containing good proportion of vitamins and minerals. Some diseases can be avoided due to raised immunity. Wrong lifestyle and wrong diet can cause hypertension, diabetes or heart disease. To maintain our health and keep the body in equilibrium, we have to take balanced diet.

Question b.
Physical exercise/Yogasanas.
By exercise and yoga, the blood circulation of body is improved. Body and joints remain flexible. Mental strain and stress is reduced. Insomnia (inability to fall asleep), arthritis, indigestion, and some other disorders can be avoided. The person who performs exercise, always remains away from the addictions. Yoga makes levels of hormones, enzymes, etc. in equilibrium. By keeping control over breathing through pranayama many respiratory and circulatory disorders can be prevented.

8. Make a list.

Question a.
Viral diseases.
AIDS, Hepatitis, Influenza, Rabies, Polio.

Question b.
Bacterial diseases.
Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Leprosy.

Question c.
Malaria, Dengue, Elephantiasis.

Question d.
Hereditary diseases.
Diabetes, Haemophilia, Muscular dystrophy, Colourblindness.

9. Write the information on modern diagnostics and treatments of cancer.

Question a.
1. Following methods are used as diagnostic methods to detect the cancer. Techniques like CT scan, MRI scan, mammography, biopsy.
Treatment of the cancer is done by the following methods:

2. For treatment of cancer, some conventional methods are used. Along with these methods, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery are commonly used to treat cancerous growth and tumours. New and modern techniques of robotic and laparoscopic surgery are also used for the treatment.

10. Enlist the names and composition of the medicines present at your home.

Question 1.
Prepare posters giving information about various diseases, public awareness and arrange exhibition in school.

Question 2.
Visit the public health center/clinic nearby and collect the information about vaccination.

Question 3.
Compose a street-play to increase public awareness about dengue, malaria, swine flu and present ¡tin the area nearby your school.

Project:

Question 1.
Prepare posters giving information about various diseases, public awareness and arrange exhibition in school.

Question 2.
Visit the public health center/clinic nearby and collect the information about vaccination.

Question 3.
Compose a street-play to increase public awareness about dengue, malaria, swine flu and present it in the area nearby your school.

Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Health and Diseases Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the sentences after filling the blanks:

Question 1.
For eradication of tuberculosis everybody should be vaccinated by …………. vaccine.
For eradication of tuberculosis everybody j should be vaccinated by B.C.G vaccine.

Question 2.
Hepatitis B can be transmitted by ………….
Hepatitis B can be transmitted by blood transfusion.

Question 3.
For treating diarrhoea/dysentery…………. is given to the patient.
For treating diarrhoea/dysentery O.R.S. is given to the patient.

Question 4.
…………. virus is responsible for the infection of swine flu.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is responsible for the infection of swine flu.

Question 5.

Question 6.
Malaria is caused by female mosquito of …………. genus.
Malaria is caused by female mosquito of Anopheles genus.

Question 7.
…………. test is performed on blood to diagnose AIDS.
ELISA test is performed on blood to diagnose AIDS.

One word in the following sentences is wrong. Change it to make the sentences correct:

Question 1.
Culex mosquito is seen in clean water.
Culex mosquito is seen in dirty water.

Question 2.
Transmission of swine flu is done by dogs and human beings.
Transmission of swine flu is done by pigs and human beings.

Question 3.
Hydrophobia is the main symptom of typhoid.
Hydrophobia is the main symptom of rabies.

Question 4.
The maximum number of patients of diabetes are found in America.
The maximum number of patients of diabetes are found in India.

Question 5.
Generic medicines are also called branded medicines.
Generic medicines are also called general medicines.

Question 6.
If the secretion of insulin is increased, then the diabetes is caused.
If the secretion of insulin is decreased, then the diabetes is caused.

Question 7.
Virus causing rabies enter the brain through food.
Virus causing rabies enter the brain through neurons.

Match the columns:

Question 1.

 Bacterial diseases Bacteria 1. Typhoid (a) Mycobacterium tuberculi 2. Cholera (b) Bacillus 3. Diarrhoea (c) Vibrio choleri 4. Tuberculosis (d) Salmonella typhi

 Bacterial diseases Bacteria 1. Typhoid (d) Salmonella typhi 2. Cholera (c) Vibrio choleri 3. Diarrhoea (b) Bacillus 4. Tuberculosis (a) Mycobacterium tuberculin

Question 2.

 Importance of the day Date 1. World Diabetes Day (a) 7th April 2. World Heart Day (b) 14th June 3. World Blood Donation Day (c) 29th September 4. World Health Day (d) 14th November

 Importance of the day Date 1. World Diabetes Day (d) 14th November 2. World Heart Day (c) 29th September 3. World Blood Donation Day (b) 14th June 4. World Health Day (a) 7th April

Identify the odd term:

Question 1.
Pranayama (All others are treatment for cancer.)

Question 2.
Chronic cough, Hoarse voice, Uncontrolled blood sugar level, Difficulty in swallowing.
Uncontrolled blood sugar level (All others are symptoms of cancer of throat.)

Question 3.
Mantra, Vaccination, Black magic, Hatred.
Vaccination (This is the only way for prevention of diseases. Rest of the others are blind faiths which are unscientific.)

Consider the relation between the items in the first pair and write the correlation for second pair:

1. Swine flu : Virus : :
Tuberculosis : : …………….
Bacteria

2. Anopheles : Malaria :
Culex : …………………
Elephantiasis

3. Housefly : Typhoid : : Dog : ………….
Rabies

4. Decrease in blood platelets : :
Dengue : : Difficulty in breathing : ……………
Swine flu

5. Cancer : Laparoscopic surgery : :
Heart disease :……………
By-Pass surgery.

Distinguish between the following:

Question 1.
Typhoid and Tuberculosis :

 Typhoid Tuberculosis 1. Typhoid is caused by bacteria (Salmonella) that is passed by contaminated food and water and is spread through house flies. 1. Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium) which pass through the spittle of the patient. 2. The infection of typhoid is through food or water via the mouth. 2. The infection of tuberculosis is through air via the nose. 3. Typhoid affects stomach and intestine. 3. Tuberculosis affects lungs and chest. 4. There is high fever for specific period in typhoid. 4. There is continuous low grade fever in tuberculosis. 5. There is stomachache and headache in typhoid. 5. There is chest pain in tuberculosis. 6. Vaccination for typhoid is given at the time of suspected epidemic. 6. BCG vaccination is given to all at a young age only.

What can be achieved/can be prevented?/Give reasons.

Question 1.
People suffering from communicable diseases should avoid going to public places.

1. Communicable diseases spread when people share space with a diseased person.
2. If people suffering from l communicable diseases go to a public place, they would spread the disease causing germs in the air.
3. These germs can be transmitted to other healthy persons.
4. If the resistance power of the persons is less, they will fall sick by getting infected.
5. This may break into an epidemic. Therefore, people suffering from communicable diseases should avoid going to public places.

Question 2.
Pet animals should be given anti-rabies vaccine.

1. We keep animals like cats and dogs at home as pets.
2. They may get infected with the virus of rabies.
3. If such an infected pet bites us, we may also get rabies.
4. Rabies is a lethal disease.
5. In order to protect the animals and to prevent rabies being transmitted, they should be given anti-rabies vaccine.

Question 3.
Tuberculosis is considered as the most communicable disease.

1. Tuberculosis is caused due to bacterial infection.
2. It is an air-borne infection and spreads through the spittle of T.B. patient.
3. When personal and public hygiene is not followed, this disease spreads very rapidly.
4. It is estimated that every two minutes, one patient dies of T.B. in India. Tuberculosis, therefore, is considered as the most communicable disease.

Question 4.
ORS gives temporary relief to the patient of diarrhoea.

1. In diarrhoea, due to loose motions the patient becomes dehydrated.
2. The eyes get sunken and the mouth becomes dry.
3. If immediate help is not given, the condition can become critical. The absorption function of the intestine is disturbed.
4. But by giving ORS, enough water, sugar and salt enter the body saving the life of the patient.
5. The sugar and salt in the ORS gets absorbed in the intestine and reduce the dehydration.
6. However, for eradication of infection, proper medical treatment is to be given, therefore, ORS gives only a temporary relief to the patient of diarrhoea.

Answer the following questions in one sentence:

Question 1.
Which virus causes dengue and how does it spread?
Dengue is caused by DEN-1, 2 virus belonging to the type – flavivirus. Aedes aegypti type of mosquito spreads the disease by transferring this virus through its bite.

Question 2.
What are the reasons for spread of swine flu?
Swine flu is caused by the virus influenza A (H1N1). Its carrier is pig. The contact with such pigs or infected persons can cause infection of swine flu. The infection spreads through sweat and through secretions of nose, throat and saliva of the diseased person.

Question 3.
What are the symptoms of swine flu?
Symptoms of swine flu : Palpitations, difficulty in breathing, sore throat, body pain along with high fever.

Question 4.
In whom was HIV first reported?
HIV was first reported in an African species of monkeys

Question 5.
What is a malignant tumour?
Due to uncontrolled cell division
there is a formation of lump of cancerous cells. If this lump is without the covering, then it is called malignant tumour.

Question 6.
How is efficiency of the heart reduced?
When the blood circulation for the heart muscles is obstructed, it does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients. Due to this condition heart has to exert more and gets stressed resulting into loss of efficiency.

Question 7.
What are the different types of treatment for heart diseases?
Angioplasty, By-Pass surgery, open heart surgery, installation of stents, installation of pacemaker, heart transplant are some of the treatment for heart diseases.

Question 8.
Government of India started the Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Yojana on 1st July 2015. Under this scheme people who are not able to afford best quality medicines are given generic medicines of the same quality at much reduced price.

Question 9.
When can eye donation be done? What is the advantage of eye donation?
Anybody can donate eyes posthumously. Due to eye donation, some blind person can regain the sight.

Explain the importance:

Question 1.
Generic medicines.
Generic medicines are also called general medicines. They are affordable for the common citizens of India. These medicines are manufactured and distributed without any patent. They are similar in quality and composition as the branded i medicines. The proportion of compounds in these medicines and its formula of preparation is readily available. Thus the money spent on the research is reduced. Therefore, generic medicines are much cheaper than the expensive branded medicines.

Question 2.
Blood donation.
Blood donation is said to be the greatest donation that one can give. Blood donation can save someone’s life. By one unit blood of a single donor, three different patients can be saved. From such blood red blood cells, white blood cells and blood i platelets can be separated and given to different patients who are in need with corresponding component. Blood cannot be manufactured artificially and hence blood donation is the only way to collect blood. One healthy person can donate blood four r times in a year, thus saving 12 patients.

Question 3.
First Aid for Heart Disease.
A person who is suffering from cardiac problems can get a heart attack suddenly. In such case, the patient should be given immediate and appropriate treatment to save his or her life. First and foremost one should call 108 for cardiac ambulance. Then the patient’s pulse or heartbeats should be checked to know his/her condition. Check the consciousness of the patient. Then make the patient to lie on a hard surface in horizontal position.

Perform C.O.L.S. or, ‘Compression Only Life Support’ on the patient. During this procedure, a pressure is given in the centre of the thorax of a patient for at least 30 times at the rate of 100 to 120 r strokes per minute. This is a first aid for the r heart attack. Before the arrival of doctor or proper medical aid, the life of a patient is saved.

Question 1.
Write a brief account about tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium tuberculae is the bacteria which causes tuberculosis (TB) infection. This infectious and communicable disease passes through spittle of the patient. The sneezing and coughing of patient cause f droplet infections. With prolonged contact with the patient and using the objects of the patient there is greater chance of acquiring TB infection. Different body organs such as bones, uterus and lungs can be affected by tuberculosis.

The pulmonary TB i.e. TB of the lungs is more common. The symptoms of TB are prolonged cough, blood through spittle, decrease in the body weight and difficulty in breathing. B.C.G. vaccine can be given in young age for prevention of TB. The patient needs to be isolated if TB is detected. Regular antibiotics have to be taken. DOTS process of medication needs to be followed.

Question 2.
Write the symptoms of dengue.
Symptoms of dengue are as follows:

1. High and severe fever.
2. Severe headache accompanied with vomiting.
3. Pain in the eye sockets as if someone is pushing the eyes out.
4. Rapid reduction in the number of blood platelets.
5. Internal haemorrhages in the body.

Question 3.
How is rabies caused? What are the important symptoms of the rabies?
Rabies is a viral disease. The bite of a rabid animal (the animal who is already infected with rabies virus) transfers the virus in the human blood through the bite wound. Dog, rabbit, monkey and cat can be infected with rabies if they are not vaccinated. The virus of rabies enters the brain through neurons. If not treated in time, rabies can be fatal.

Symptoms of rabies: There is a fever which lasts for 2 to 12 weeks. The victim becomes hyper-excited. He /She shows exaggerations in behaviour. Hydrophobia is very unique symptom in which person is scared and phobic of water. The symptoms can be seen within 90 to 175 days after the animal-bite.
When the dog or any animal bites, before the symptoms are seen, the victim should immediately take anti-rabies vaccine. This vaccination can save a person.

Question 4.
What are the causes of cancer?
The carcinogenic substances can cause cancer. Thus such substances should never be used. Tobacco, gutkha and other nicotine containing products can cause cancer. Smoking and alcoholism can also induce cancer development. Cancer is also hereditary disease which is said to be caused by oncogenes. The lack of high fibre food in the diet and junk food in great quantities can induce the cancer development in some part of the alimentary canal.

Question 5.
Write the symptoms of cancer.

1. If part of the respiratory system is under the attack of cancer, it can cause, long term cough, hoarse voice, difficulty in swallowing or difficulty in breathing.
2. The wounds do not become cured and the scar too is incurable. Inflammations does not subside.
3. There is formation of tumour like lump in the breast of the females.
4. In all the types of cancer there is unexplained weight loss.

Question 6.
What are the preventive measures to avoid the cancer?
Complete control over diet should be followed. It should be’ healthy and nutritive. Such diet protects one from the cancer. The modern treatment processes should be immediately carried out, if the cancer is detected. With time-lapse, the growth of the cancer keeps on increasing. Physical exercises should be regularly done. Tobacco consumption, smoking are some addictions that can induce cancer. These should never be tried.

Question 7.
What are the causes and symptoms of diabetes?
Causes of diabetes: The pancreas in normal persons secrete hormone insulin which maintains the sugar level in the blood. When there is deficiency of insulin, the symptoms of diabetes develop due to uncontrolled blood sugar level. Hereditary causes also can develop diabetes.

Obesity, lack of physical exercise, mental stress can also lead to diabetes. Overconsumption of fried food and over-indulgence in eating sweetmeats increase the chances of diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes: The person who develops diabetes has frequent urination and continuous thirst. The body weight also reduces rapidly. Sometimes it may rise suddenly. There is continuous feeling of fatigue.

Question 8.
What are the causes of heart diseases?
Addictions such as smoking, alcoholism and junk food lead to heart disease. Diabetes, hypertension, obesity are responsible for developing heart disease. Lack of physical exercise, no physical work, continuous sedentary mode are some causes which reduce the efficiency of the working of heart. Mental strain and stress, anger, frustration, anxiety are some psychological reasons that can lead to heart problems

Question 9.
What happens when medicines are missed?
When medicines are taken without the consultation of doctor, there are certain problems. When the medicines and drugs are taken without any cause or symptom, then it is a misuse. Overdose of pain killers produce side effects. Some of these cause damage to nervous system, excretory system and liver. Overdose of antibiotics develops nausea, stomachache, loose motions and rash, white patches on tongue, etc.

Questions based on charts/tables:

Question 1.
Complete the table: Prepare similar table of information as the table given on page 7 about various disease like enteritis, malaria, plague and leprosy.

Question 2.
Draw a flow diagram to show treatment for heart diseases.

Activity-based questions:

Question 1.
Enlist the names and composition of the medicines present at your home.
Students are expected to write this answer based on the medicines in their own homes.

Question 2.
Observe and discuss :

Observe the following pictures and write description in the boxes.

Open-Ended Questions:

Question 1.
Poor people do not afford the costly medicines. Is there any alternative for this? Which one?

Some medicines are very costly. The poor people cannot afford such expensive medicines. In such cases, some social organizations may give some help to these patients. Some trusts like Tata trust can also offer help to the needy for the treatment.

Some hospitals have social workers who help the needy for raising the funds for poor patients. Another way is to use generic medicines.

These medicines are at par in quality with the branded medicines but they are quite less in the price. They are available in the generic medicine shops. One can also take benefit of Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Yojana.

Question 2.
What measures will you take to stop the breeding of mosquitoes?
We have to take care that there is no water stagnated in and around the house. The garden plants and pots in the house should be checked for the mosquito larvae and eggs if any. If water is not receding and remaining accumulated, then the spraying of insecticides should be done with the help of elders. With the help of elders in the house, the complaint can be lodged in the Malaria eradication department in the nearby Municipality or Gram Panachyat office.

If the water is in ponds, we can release guppy fishes to eradicate the mosquito larvae. The fish feed on the larvae and automatically control the mosquito population.

Question 3.
Our behaviour with HIV infected person must be normal or should not be normal? What is your opinion? Write it with correct explanation.
Our behaviour with HIV infected person must be normal. There are no chances of acquiring AIDS by having normal behaviour with the HIV positive person. HIV can pass only through body fluids and blood from HIV infected person to the other normal person. Similarly, the needles or syringes used by HIV infected person can cause the infection of HIV to the other person.

Such ways of contamination should always be avoided. The sexual contact or the blood transfusion with HIV positive person should always be avoided. But the normal behaviour such as hand-shake, eating together, studying in the same class will not matter at all in the transmission of AIDS.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Pilgrim

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Pilgrim Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 English Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Pilgrim

Class 8 English Chapter 1.3 The Pilgrim Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

Make groups and discuss the following using the given points:

Question a.
What fatal dangers/problems did mankind face centuries ago, but are no longer a threat today?
(Points : wild animals – lack of food – certain diseases – climate etc.)

Question b.
Name a few scientists/explorers/ social reformers / inventors / discoverers, who spent most of their lives to find solutions to some major problems/ setbacks that mankind faced.
(Points : Alexander Fleming, Edison, Ronald Ross, Christopher Columbus, Wright brothers, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Galileo, Marie Curie, Savitribai Phule, Babasaheb Ambedkar, etc.)

Question c.
Did they themselves suffer from those problems/setbacks?
(Points : most did not)

Question d.
What inspired them to spend the best part of their lives to research and share their findings?
(Points : a passion for well-being of ! mankind – personal goals and aims – interest in the subject – curiosity – the urge to improve society and help others – etc.)

2. Read and understand the following poetic devices:

(A) If two or more words in the same line convey the some meaning, the Figure of Speech in thut line is called Tautology.
For example: It brought joy and cheer.
They groaned with aches and pains.

(B) ‘Poets often change the proper grammatical order of words in the ¡inc of a poem, in order to make the lines rhyme or to emphasize upon something. The Figure of Speech in such lines is called inersion’ or Anastrophe.’
For example: Up came the sun. Down the hill, it flowed.

(C) When a question is asked in order to create a dramatic effect and not to get an answer, in a line of the poem, the Figure of Speech used is called
Interrogation / Rhetorical Questions:
For example: What is this life, if full of care?

1.Pick out words from the poem to fill in the web diagram. They should be related to the theme in the web.

2.The entire poem is metaphorical (Implied comparison).
Match the words in Column A with what they imply in Column B.

(1) pilgrim – a dutiful man
(2) journey – life
(3) evening or close of day – old age
(4) chasm, deep and wide – threat to life
(5) building a bridge – solving a problem /getting rid of a threat to life
(6) pitfall – trap
(7) close of day – death

3. A. Read the poem and write 3 qualities of each of the following.

Question a.
Why did the old man have no need to build the bridge, across the chasm?
The old pilgrim had already crossed the chasm and would never pass that way again. Hence, the old man had no need to build the bridge across the chasm.

Question b.
What explanation did he give to the fellow- pilgrim for his thoughtful deed?
The old man said that though he had already crossed the chasm, there was a fair-haired youth who was about to pass that way. The old man was experienced and was not afraid of the chasm. However, the young man was inexperienced and the chasm could prove to be a pitfall for him.
He too had to cross it at twilight, and the old man was building a bridge to help this youth.

Question c.
What message does the poem convey to all of us?
The message that the poem conveys to us is that we must be generous ) and unselfish and think of others. We must try to help others who are not as experienced as we are.

4. A. Note the rhyming words in the first stanza:
way – gray I wide-side- tide / dim -him.
Poet has used a deliberate pattern of lines that rhyme with other lines in the poem or
the stanza. This pattern can be identified by giving the rhyming pairs of words the
same letter of the alphabet.
For example: l stanza of this poem has the pattern AABCCBB
So, AABCCBB is called the Rhyme Scheme of the 1stanza of the poem
‘The Pilgrim’.
(i) the 2nd stanza : ddaabb
(ii) the 3rd stanza: eeaaffcc

4. B. Now write the Rhyme Scheme of the 2stanza and 3 stanza
Remember that a line in the 2d or stanza may rhyme with lines in P’ stanza,
too. You may use the sanie letter of the alphabet as used in the 1 stanza.
(i) Came at evening, cold and gray. To a chasm, deep and vast and wide.
(The correct prose order Is: Came on a cold and gray evening to a deep and wide and vast chasm.)
(ii) To the fair-haired youth. may a pitfall be.
(The correct prose order is : To the fair-haired youth, It may be a pitfall.)

4. C. Find two lines from the poem that j contain the figure of speech ‘Inversion’.
(i) Came at evening, cold and gray, To a chasm, deep and vast and wide.
(The correct prose order is : Came on j a cold and gray evening to a deep and wide and vast chasm.)
(ii) To the fair-haired youth, may a pitfall be.
(The correct prose order is : To the fair-haired youth, it may be a pitfall.)

Pick out one line each that contains the following figures of speech:
(Note: Refer to the next page for the explanation.)

Question a.
Tautology:
To a chasm, deep and vast and wide.
The words vast and wide have similar meaning.

Question b.
Personification:
A pilgrim, going a lone highway.
The highway is given the human quality of being lonely.

Question c.
Interrogation:
Why waste your time in building here?
A question is asked to emphasize an idea.

5. Imagine that you are the fellow – pilgrim and you wish to share your experience of the incident in the poem. Write a short article about it for a magazine / journal. Also convey what change it has brought in our life.

Class 8 English Chapter 1.3 The Pilgrim Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complete the following:

Question 1.
paused and built a bridge across the waters.

Question 2.
The old pilgrim built the bridge to to __________.
help the Inexperienced youth who was following on the same path.

Complex Factual Activities:
Give reasons:

Question a.
The fellow pilgrim was puzzled.
The old pilgrim had already crossed the chasm and would never pass that way again. Yet, he was building a bridge across the chasm. The fellow pilgrim could not understand the reason for this and was hence puzzled.

Question b.
What/Who could be the third pilgrim?
The third pilgrim could be a young, inexperienced youth.

Analysis/Appreciation Of A Poem
(1) Poem and poet: ‘The Pilgrim’ by Will Allan Dromgoole
(2) Theme: Those who have faced the difficulties of life successfully and are experienced must be unselfish and help those who are inexperienced and may face difficulties.
(3) Tone: Serious.
(4) Structure and stanzas: Stanzas of unequal length; 1st stanza – 7 lines; 2nd stanza – 6 lines; 3rd stanza – 8 lines;
(5) Rhyme and Rhythm: 1st stanza – AABCCBB; 2nd stanza – ddaabb; 3rd stanza – eeaaffcc
(6) Language and Imagery: The narrative is direct with some archaic language used; there is a strong underlying message. The descriptions are vivid.
(7) Figures of Speech: Inversion, Tautology, Personification, Interrogation.

Writing Skills:

“Imagine that you are the fellow-pilgrim and you wish to share your experience of \ the incident in the poem. Write a short j article about it for a magazine/journal.
Also convey what change it has brought in your life.