Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Marathi Yuvakbharati 12th Digest Chapter 1 वेगवशता Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

12th Marathi Guide Chapter 1 वेगवशता Textbook Questions and Answers

कृती 

1. अ. पाठाच्या आधारे खालील चौकटी पूर्ण करा.

प्रश्न 1. अ
पाठाच्या आधारे खालील चौकटी पूर्ण करा.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 2
उत्तर :

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 3

आ. कृती करा.

प्रश्न 1. आ.
कृती करा
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 4.1

उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 5.1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 6.1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 7.1

इ. कारणे शोधा व लिहा.

प्रश्न 1.
अमेरिकेतील माणसांचे जीवन वेगवान असते, कारण ………………. .
उत्तर :
अमेरिकेतील माणसांचे जीवन वेगवान असते; कारण वेगवेगळ्या ठिकाणांमधील अंतर खूपच असते आणि दरडोई वाहन उपलब्ध असते

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न 2.
लेखकांच्या मते, गरजेच्या वेळी वाहनांचा वापर करायला हवा; कारण ………………… .
उत्तर :
लेखकांच्या मते, गरजेच्या वेळी वाहनांचा वापर करायला हवा; कारण रस्त्यावर अडचणी निर्माण होणार नाहीत.

2. अ. योग्य पर्याय निवडून उत्तर लिहा.

प्रश्न 1.
जीवन अर्थ पूर्ण होईल, जर ………………….
अ. वाहन कामापुरतेच वापरले तर.
आ. वाहन आवश्यक कामासाठी वापरले तर
इ. वाहनाचा वेग आटोक्यात ठेवला तर.
ई. वरील तिन्ही गोष्टींचा अवलंब केला तर.
उत्तर :
ई. वरील तिन्ही गोष्टींचा अवलंब केला तर.

प्रश्न 2.
निसर्गविरोधी वर्तन नसणे, म्हणजे……………..
अ. स्वत:ला वाहनाशी सतत जखडून ठेवणे.
आ. वाहनाचा अतिवेग अंगीकारणे.
इ. तातडीचा भाग म्हणून कधीतरी वाहन वापरणे.
ई. गरज नसताना वाहन वापरणे.
उत्तर :
इ. तातडीचा भाग म्हणून कधीतरी वाहन वापरणे.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

आ. वाहन वापरातील फरक स्पष्ट करा.

प्रश्न 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 1
उत्तर :

अमेरिका भारत
घरोघर, दरडोई वाहन उपलब्ध असते. अंतरे कमी आहेत.
रस्ते रुंद, सरळ, निर्विघ्न व एकमार्गी माणसे खूप आहेत.
कामांची वेगवेगळी ठिकाणे किमान शंभर मैल अंतरावर असतात. कामे फारशी नसतात.
दूरदूरची ठिकाणे गाठण्यासाठी वेगाचा आश्रय घ्यावा लागतो. महानगरे रेल्वेने जोडलेली आहेत.

3. खालील वाक्यांचा अर्थ सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा.

प्रश्न अ.
यथाप्रमाण गती ही गरज आहे ; पण अप्रमाण, अवास्तव आणि अनावश्यक गती ही एक विकृती आहे.
उत्तर :
योग्य त्या प्रमाणात, आवश्यक त्या प्रमाणात वाहन वापरणे ही माणसाची गरज आहे. योग्य त्या प्रमाणात वाहन न वापरणे, अव्यवहार्य रितीने वापरणे आणि गरज नसताना वापरणे हे अनैसर्गिक आहे.

प्रश्न आ.
आरंभी माणसे वाहनांवर स्वार होतात. मग वाहने माणसांवर स्वार होतात.
उत्तर :
सुरुवातीला लोक गाडी जपून चालवतात. थोड्या काळासाठीच जपून चालवतात. मात्र हळूहळू त्यांना गाडीची चटक लागते. मग ते गरज असतानाच नव्हे, तर केवळ मौजमजा करण्यासाठीसुद्धा गाडीचा वापर करतात. हळूहळू त्यांना गाडीशिवाय कुठे जाताही येत नाही. पूर्णपणे ते गाडीवरच अवलंबून राहतात. हे सिगारेटच्या व्यसनासारखेच आहे.

सुरुवातीला फक्त एकदाच, मग फक्त एकच. असे करता करता दिवसाला एक पाकीट कधी होते हे कळतच नाही. नंतर नंतर सिगारेट मिळाली नाही तर त्या व्यक्तीचे मनःस्वास्थ्यच नाहीसे होते. सिगारेटशिवाय ती राहू शकत नाही. ती व्यक्ती सिगारेटचा गुलाम होऊन जाते. तद्वतच माणसेही गाड्यांचे गुलाम होतात. त्यांच्या वापराबाबत माणसांना कोणतेही तारतम्य राहत नाही.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न इ.
उगाच भावविवश होऊन वेगवश होऊ नये.
उत्तर :
वाहन हे सोयीसाठी असते. ते साधन आहे. आपला वेळ व आपले श्रम वाहनामुळे वाचतात. आपली कामे भराभर होतात. वाहनाचे हे स्थान ओळखले पाहिजे. यापलीकडे आपल्या भावना गुंतवू नयेत. वाऱ्यासोबत त्याच्या वेगाने धावू लागलो तर काही क्षण आनंद मिळतो. उत्साह, उल्हास शरीरात सळसळतो. म्हणजे आपल्या भावना उचंबळून येतात. या भावनांवर आपण आरूढ झालो, तर आपला वाहनावर ताबा राहत नाही आणि अपघातांची शक्यता निर्माण होते.

आपल्या वाहनाला धडकेल का, आपल्याला जिथे वळायचे आहे तिथे वळता येईल का, त्या वेळी बाकीच्या वाहनांची स्थिती कशी असेल, त्यांच्यापैकी कोणीही स्वत:ची दिशा बदलण्याचा संभव आहे का इत्यादी अनेक बाबींचा विचार काही क्षणांत करावा लागतो. त्या अनुषंगाने सतत विचार करीत राहावे लागते. वाहन आणि वाहनाची गती यांखेरीज अन्य कोणतेही विचार मनात आणता येत नाहीत.

एकाच विचाराला जखडले गेल्यामुळे डोळ्यांवर, शरीरावर व मनावर विलक्षण ताण येतो. अपघाताची भीती मनात सावलीसारखी वावरत असते. तासन्तास तणावाखाली राहावे लागल्याने मनावर विपरीत परिणाम होतात. वाहनाचा वेग जास्त असल्यामुळे अगदी बारीकशा खड्ड्यानेसुद्धा वाहनाला हादरे बसतात. सांधे दुखतात. ते कमकुवत होतात. अशा प्रकारे वाढता वेग म्हणजे ताण, हे समीकरण तयार होते.

4. व्याकरण.

अ. समानार्थी शब्द लिहा.

प्रश्न अ.
समानार्थी शब्द लिहा.

  1. निकड –
  2. उचित –
  3. उसंत –
  4. व्यग्न –

उत्तर :

  1. निकड – गरज
  2. उचित – योग्य
  3. उसंत – सवड
  4. व्यग्र – गर्क

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

आ. खालील सामासिक शब्दांचा विग्रह करून समास ओळखा.

प्रश्न आ.
खालील सामासिक शब्दांचा विग्रह करून समास ओळखा.

  1. ताणतणाव –
  2. दरडोई –
  3. यथाप्रमाण –
  4. जीवनशैली –

उत्तर :

  1. ताणतणाव – ताण, तणाव वगैरे → समाहार व्वंद्व
  2. दरडोई – प्रत्येक डोईला → अव्ययीभाव
  3. यथाप्रमाण – प्रमाणाप्रमाणे → अव्ययीभाव
  4. जीवनशैली – जीवनाची शैली → विभक्ती तत्पुरुष

इ. कंसातील सूचनेनुसार वाक्यरूपांतर करा.

प्रश्न इ.
कंसातील सूचनेनुसार वाक्यरूपांतर करा.

  1. आजच्या जीवनात विलक्षण वेगवानता आढळते. (उद्गारार्थी करा.)
  2. आपल्याकडे कामाच्या ठिकाणाची अंतरे कमी आहेत. (नकारार्थी करा.)
  3. निसर्गरम्य स्थान किंवा मंदिर पाहण्यासाठी ही माणसे का जात नाहीत? (विधानार्थी करा.)

उत्तर :

  1. किती विलक्षण वेगवानता आढळते आजच्या जीवनात!
  2. आपल्याकडे कामाच्या ठिकाणांची अंतरे जास्त नाहीत.
  3. माणसांनी निसर्गरम्य स्थान किंवा मंदिर पाहण्यासाठी जायला हरकत नाही.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

5. स्वमत.

प्रश्न अ.
‘वाहनांच्या अतिवापराने शरीर व्यापारात अडथळे निर्माण होतात’, तुमचे मत सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
अलीकडच्या काळात जीवन विलक्षण गतिमान झाले आहे. एकाच माणसाला अनेक कामे पार पाडावी लागतात. तीसुद्धा कमी अवधीत. कामांशी संबंधित ठिकाणी अनेक माणसांना अनेक ठिकाणी गाठावे लागते. मोठमोठी अंतरे कापावी लागतात. चालत जाऊन ही कामे करता येणे शक्य नसते. साहजिकच वाहनांचा उपयोग अपरिहार्य ठरतो.

फक्त एका-दोघांना किंवा फक्त काहीजणांनाच वाहन वापरावे लागते असे नाही. सामान्य माणसांनाही वाहन वापरणे गरजेचे होऊन बसले आहे. सतत वाहन वापरण्याचे दुष्परिणाम खूप होतात. आपण चालत चालत जाऊन कामे करतो, तेव्हा शरीराच्या सर्व प्रकारच्या हालचाली होतात. इकडे-तिकडे वळणे, खाली वाकणे, वर पाहणे, मागे पाहणे, हात वर-खाली करणे, पाय दुमडून बसणे.

पाय लांब करून बसणे, उकिडवे बसणे अशा कितीतरी लहान लहान कृतींतून शारीरिक हालचाली घडत असतात. या हालचालींमुळे शरीराच्या सगळ्याच स्नायूंना आणि सांध्यांना भरपूर व्यायाम मिळतो. शरीर लवचीक बनते. आपण या हालचाली सहजगत्या, एका लयीत करू शकतो. एक सुंदर, नैसर्गिक लय शरीराला लाभते. मात्र, सतत वाहनांचा उपयोग करावा लागल्यामुळे हालचालींना आपण मुकतो.

शरीराला लवचिकता प्राप्त होत नाही. शरीराच्या अनेक व्याधींना सुरुवात होते. दुःखे, कटकटी भोगाव्या लागतात. पैसा, वेळ खर्च होतो. दैनंदिन जीवन विस्कळीत होते. जगण्यातला आनंद नाहीसा होतो. म्हणजे आपल्या शरीर व्यापारात अनेक अडथळे निर्माण होतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न आ.
‘वाढता वेग म्हणजे ताण’, याविषयी तुमचे मत सविस्तर लिहा.
उत्तर :
माणसे वाहनात बसली की ते दृश्य पाहण्यासारखे असते. सर्वजण उल्हसित मन:स्थितीत असतात. सगळ्यांच्या बोलण्याच्या कोलाहलामुळे वातावरणात आनंद भरून जातो. वाहनचालकाला हळूहळू सुरसुरी येते. तो हळूहळू वेग वाढवू लागतो. सर्वजण उत्तेजित होतात. गाडीचा वेग वाढतच जातो. मागे पडत जाणाऱ्या वाहनांकडे सगळेजण विजयी मुद्रेने पाहू लागतात.

चालक हळूहळू बेभान होतो. अन्य गाडीवाले सामान्य आहेत, कमकुवत आहेत, आपण सम्राट आहोत, अशी भावना मनातून उसळी घेऊ लागते. अशा मन:स्थितीत माणूस विवेक गमावतो. गाडी सुरक्षितपणे चालवण्यासाठी ही मन:स्थिती अनुकूल नसते. गाडी सुरक्षितपणे चालवण्यासाठी चित्त एकवटून वाहनावर केंद्रित करावे लागते. हात आणि पाय यांच्या हालचाली अचूक जुळवून घेण्यासाठी सतत मनाची तयारी ठेवावी लागते.

क्लच, ब्रेक, अक्सलरेटर, यांच्याकडे बारीक लक्ष ठेवावे लागते. त्याच वेळी पाठीमागून व बाजूने येणारी वाहने आणि आपण यांच्यात सुरक्षित अंतर ठेवण्याचा कसोशीने प्रयत्न करावा लागतो. अन्य एखादे वाहन मध्येच आडवे येईल का, आपल्या वाहनाला धडकेल का, आपल्याला जिथे वळायचे आहे तिथे वळता येईल का, त्या वेळी बाकीच्या वाहनांची स्थिती कशी असेल, त्यांच्यापैकी कोणीही स्वत:ची दिशा बदलण्याचा संभव आहे का इत्यादी अनेक बाबींचा विचार काही क्षणांत करावा लागतो.

त्या अनुषंगाने सतत विचार करीत राहावे लागते. वाहन आणि वाहनाची गती यांखेरीज अन्य कोणतेही विचार मनात आणता येत नाहीत. एकाच विचाराला जखडले गेल्यामुळे डोळ्यांवर, शरीरावर व मनावर विलक्षण ताण येतो. अपघाताची भीती मनात सावलीसारखी वावरत असते. तासन्तास तणावाखाली राहावे लागल्याने मनावर विपरीत परिणाम होतात. वाहनाचा वेग जास्त असल्यामुळे अगदी बारीकशा खड्ड्यानेसुद्धा वाहनाला हादरे बसतात. सांधे दुखतात. ते कमकुवत होतात. अशा प्रकारे वाढता वेग म्हणजे ताण, हे समीकरण तयार होते.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न इ.
‘वाहन हे वेळ वाचवण्यासाठी असते. ते वेळ घालवण्यासाठी नसते’, हे विधान तुमच्या शब्दांत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
खरे तर प्राचीन काळापासून वाहन निर्माण करणे, हे माणसाचे स्वप्न होते. त्याच्या मनात खोलवर रुजलेले हे स्वप्न प्राचीन कथांमधून, देवदेवतांच्या कथांमधून सतत व्यक्त होत राहिले आहे. माणसाच्या मनातल्या या प्रबळ प्रेरणेतूनच वाहनाची निर्मिती झाली आहे. वेळ आणि श्रम वाचवणे हाच वाहनाच्या निर्मितीमागील हेतू आहे. अलीकडच्या काळात जीवनाचा वेग प्रचंड वाढला आहे. वेळ थोडा असतो. कामे भरपूर असतात. कामाची ठिकाणेसुद्धा दूर दूर असतात. अनेक ठिकाणी जावे लागते.

अनेक माणसांना भेटावे लागते. म्हणूनच वाहनांची निर्मिती झाली आहे. वाहनांमुळे माणसाची प्रचंड प्रगती झाली आहे. त्यामुळे वाहनाला माणसाच्या जीवनात फार मोठे स्थान मिळालेले आहे. अशी ही अत्यंत महत्त्वाची वस्तू आपल्याकडे असावी, असे सगळ्यांना वाटू लागते. माणसे धडपडून वाहने प्राप्त करतात. प्रतिष्ठा मिळवतात. पण वेळ व श्रम वाचवणे हा उद्देश मात्र त्यांच्या मनातून केव्हाच दूर होतो. वाहन हे साधन आहे.

ते आपला वेळ वाचवते यात शंकाच नाही. परंतु काहीही केले तरी किमान वेळ हा लागतोच. शून्य वेळामध्ये आपण कुठेही पोहोचू शकत नाही. वाहन ही अखेरीस एक वस्तू आहे. वस्तूला तिच्या मर्यादा असतात. हे लक्षात न घेता आपण जास्तीत जास्त वेग वाढवून कमीत कमी वेळात पोहोचण्याचा हव्यास बाळगतो. अतिवेगामुळे आपलेच नुकसान होते. अनेक शारीरिक व्याधी आपल्याला जडतात. शारीरिक क्षमता उणावते. जगण्यातला आनंद कमी होतो. हे सर्व आपण सतत लक्षात ठेवले पाहिजे.

पण हे कोणीही लक्षात घेत नाही. केवळ हौसेसाठी, गंमत-जंमत करण्यासाठी, आपल्याकडे गाडी आहे, ऐश्वर्य आहे हे दाखवण्यासाठी लोक गाडीचा उपयोग करतात. हळूहळू गाडीचे गुलाम बनतात. गाडी हे एक साधन आहे, हे आपण सतत लक्षात ठेवले पाहिजे.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न ई.
‘वाहनाची अतिगती ही विकृती आहे’, स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
वाहनाची अतिगती ही विकृती आहे, हे विधान शंभर टक्के सत्य आहे. हे विधान मला पूर्णपणे मान्य आहे. विकृती म्हणजे जे सहज नाही, नैसर्गिक नाही ते. कल्पना करा. आपल्याला चॉकलेट खूप आवडते. सर्व जगात असे किती जण आहेत, जे सकाळी, दुपारी, संध्याकाळी व रात्री आवडते म्हणून फक्त चॉकलेटच खातात? समजा एखादयाला पांढरा रंग खूप आवडतो, म्हणून तो घरातल्या सर्व माणसांना फक्त पांढऱ्या रंगाचेच कपडे घेतो. घराला पांढरा रंग देतो. अंथरुणे-पांघरुणे पांढरी, खिडक्यांचे पडदे पांढरे, भांडीकुंडी, फर्निचर पांढऱ्या रंगाचे. हे असे करणारा जगामध्ये.

एक तरी माणूस असेल का? सर्वजण पायांनी चालतात. उलटे होऊन हातांवर तोल सावरत प्रयत्नपूर्वक चालता येऊ शकते. पण अशा त-हेने नियमितपणे जाणारा एक तरी माणूस सापडेल का? जे सहज आहे, नैसर्गिक आहे तेच साधारणपणे माणूस करतो. तीच खरे तर प्रकृती असते. याच्या विरुद्ध वागणे म्हणजे विकृती होय. रोजच्या जेवणात वरण-भात आणि भाजी-पोळी असणे, घरात विविध रंगसंगती योजणे, पायांनी चालणे हे सर्व सहज, नैसर्गिक आहे.

सर्व माणसे तसेच वागतात. हाच न्याय वाहनांनासुद्धा लागू पडतो. मर्यादित वेगाने वाहन चालवत, अपघाताची शक्यता निर्माण होऊ न देता, सुरक्षितपणे, वेळेत पोहोचणे हा वाहनाने प्रवास करण्याचा हेतू असतो. हा हेतू आपण अतिवेगाचा हव्यास बाळगला नाही तरच यशस्वी होतो. म्हणून अतिवेग ही विकृती होय, हेच खरे.

6. अभिव्यक्ती.

प्रश्न अ.
रस्त्यावरील वाहतूक कोंडीत सापडल्यावर तुमची भूमिका काय असेल ते लिहा.
उत्तर :
सध्या वाहनांची प्रचंड गर्दी झाली आहे. रस्ते मात्र पूर्वीएवढेच आहेत. रस्त्यांची संख्या पूर्वीइतकीच आणि त्यांची लांबी-रुंदीसुद्धा पूर्वीइतकीच. गाड्यांची संख्या मात्र प्रचंड वाढली आहे. कमी वेळात पोहोचण्याच्या इच्छेने वाहन खरेदी केले जाते खरे; पण वाहतूक कोंडीतच तासन्तास वाया जातात. या परिस्थितीमुळे मनाचा संताप होतो. वाहन आपल्या मालकीचे असते. पण रस्ता.

आपल्या मालकीचा नसतो. मग वाहतूक कोंडीच्या ठिकाणी प्रचंड गदारोळ माजतो. प्रत्येकजण स्वत:ची गाडी वाटेल तशी पुढे दामटत राहतो. सर्व गाड्या एकमेकांच्या वाटा अडवून उभ्या राहतात. कोणीही पुढे जाऊ शकत नाही की मागे परतू शकत नाही. गाड्यांचे हॉर्न कर्कश आवाजात मोठमोठ्याने कोकलत असतात. काही जणांची भांडणे सुरू होतात. पोलीस हतबल होतात.

अशा प्रसंगात मी सापडलो तर? सर्वप्रथम हे लक्षात घेईन की परिस्थिती माझ्या नियंत्रणात नाही. मी पूर्णपणे शांत राहीन. मनाची चिडचिड होऊ देणार नाही. अस्वस्थ होणार नाही. हॉर्न तर मुळीच वाजवणार नाही. मध्ये मध्ये घुसून पुढे जाण्याचा प्रयत्न करणार नाही. तसे करणाऱ्यांना समजावून सांगण्याचा प्रयत्न करीन. कारण अशा पद्धतीने कोणीही पुढे जाऊ शकत नाही.

उलट अडचणींमध्ये भर पडण्याची शक्यता जास्त. आपण स्वतः पुढे होऊन रहदारीचे नियंत्रण करू लागलो तर लोक आपले ऐकणार नाहीत. पण आणखी एका दोघांशी बोलून दोघे-तिघे जण तिथल्या पोलीस काकांना भेटू. आमची मदत करण्याची इच्छा बोलून दाखवू. त्यांच्याशी चर्चा करून काय काय करायचे ते ठरवून घेऊ. कामांची आपापसांत वाटणी करून घेऊ आणि पोलीस काकांच्या मार्गदर्शनाखाली वाहतूक नियंत्रण सुरू करू.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न आ.
वाहन चालवत असताना कोणती काळजी घ्यावी, ते तुमच्या शब्दांत लिहा.
उत्तर :
गाडी चालवताना काळजी घेतली आणि वाहतुकीचे नियम काटेकोरपणे पाळले तर प्रवास सुखाचा, सुरक्षित आणि कमीत कमी वेळेत पूर्ण होतो.

गाडी चालवायला बसण्यापूर्वीची पूर्वतयारी :

  • प्रत्येक वेळी गाडी चालवायला बसण्यापूर्वी वाहन चालवण्याचा परवाना (ड्रायव्हिंग लायसन्स), अन्य आवश्यक कागदपत्रे (विमा, पीयुसी इत्यादी) घेतल्याची खात्री करून घ्यावी.
  • टायरमधील हवा आणि गाडीतील इंधन पुरेपूर असल्याची खात्री करावी.
  • गाडीतील प्रवाशांना वाहतुकीच्या सामान्य नियमांची कल्पना दयावी. आणीबाणीच्या प्रसंगी काय करावे त्याची माहिती दयावी.

प्रत्यक्ष गाडी चालवताना घ्यायची काळजी :

  • गाडीवर पूर्ण लक्ष ठेवावे.
  • गाडीतील प्रवाशांच्या गप्पांत सामील होऊ नये.
  • गाडीचा वेग पन्नास-साठ किलोमीटरच्या पलीकडे जाऊ देऊ नये; कारण आपल्याकडील रस्ते अजूनही साठ किलोमीटरपेक्षा जास्त वेगाने जाण्यास योग्य बनवलेले नाहीत.
  • जास्त वेगामुळे सतत हादरे बसतात आणि सर्वांनाच त्रास होतो. शारीरिक व्याधी जडतात. म्हणून जास्त वेगाचा मोह टाळावा.
  • गाडीतील प्रवाशांना गप्पा मारण्यास बंदी घालता येत नाही. तरीही गप्पांच्या ओघात अचानक मोठ्याने ओरडणे किंवा हास्यस्फोटक विनोद करणे या गोष्टी टाळण्याच्या सूचना दयाव्यात.
  • स्वत:ची लेन सोडून जाऊ नये.
  • लेन बदलताना, वळण घेताना, रस्ता बदलताना खूप आधीपासून तयारी करावी. योग्य ते सिग्नल दयावेत.
  • वाटेत जागोजागी लावलेल्या वाहतुकीच्या सूचनांचे काटेकोर पालन करावे.
  • गाडीत धूम्रपान, मद्यपान करू नये. गाडी चालकाने तर मुळीच करू नये.

अशा प्रकारे काळजी घेतल्यास आपला प्रवास सुखाचा होतो.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

उपक्रम :

‘वाहतूक नियंत्रण पोलीस कर्मचारी’ यांची अभिरूप मुलाखत तुमच्या वर्गमित्राच्या/मैत्रिणीच्या मदतीने वर्गात सादर करा.

तोंडी परीक्षा :

‘वाहतूक सुरक्षेची गरज’ या विषयावर पाच मिनिटांचे भाषण दया.

Marathi Yuvakbharati 12th Digest Chapter 1 वेगवशता Additional Important Questions and Answers

प्रश्न. पुढील उतारा वाचा आणि दिलेल्या सूचनांनुसार कृती करा :

कृती 1 : (आकलन)

योग्य पर्याय निवडून उत्तर लिहा.

प्रश्न 1.
1. वाहनाचा वेग अनिवार झाला, तर …….
2. शरीर-मनावरील ताण नाहीसे होतात.
3. शरीरभर आनंदाची स्पंदने निर्माण होतात.
4. आरोग्याची हानी होते.
5. एकाच जागी तासन्तास जखडून बसण्याचे शारीरिक कौशल्य अवगत होते.
उत्तर :
4. आरोग्याची हानी होते.

पुढील वाक्यांचा अर्थ सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा :

प्रश्न 1.
जीवन हे दशदिशांना विभागले आहे.
उत्तर :
आधुनिक काळात खूप प्रगती झाल्यामुळे माणसे पूर्वीच्या काळापेक्षा कमी वेळात जास्त कामे करतात. त्यामुळे कामांची ठिकाणे अनेक असतात. ही ठिकाणे दूर दूर पसरलेली असतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न 2.
अंतरावरच्या गोष्टींशी जवळीक साधण्यासाठी दूरवर जावे लागते.
उत्तर :
अमेरिकेसारख्या देशामध्ये राहण्याची ठिकाणे, नोकरीव्यवसायाची ठिकाणे, अन्य कामाची ठिकाणे ही सर्व दूर दूर अंतरावर असतात. ही अंतरे पार करण्यासाठी खूप प्रवास करावा लागतो. भारतातील अनेक व्यक्तींची मुले अमेरिकेसारख्या दूरदूरच्या देशांमध्ये राहतात. ही सर्व माणसे एकमेकांना नियमितपणे व सहजपणे भेटू शकत नाहीत. साहजिकच अंतरामुळे त्यांच्यात दुरावा निर्माण होतो.

शकत नाही. गाड्यांचे हॉर्न कर्कश आवाजात मोठमोठ्याने कोकलत असतात. काही जणांची भांडणे सुरू होतात. पोलीस हतबल होतात. अशा प्रसंगात मी सापडलो तर? सर्वप्रथम हे लक्षात घेईन की परिस्थिती माझ्या नियंत्रणात नाही. मी पूर्णपणे शांत राहीन. मनाची चिडचिड होऊ देणार नाही. अस्वस्थ होणार नाही. हॉर्न तर मुळीच वाजवणार नाही.

मध्ये मध्ये घुसून पुढे जाण्याचा प्रयत्न करणार नाही. तसे करणाऱ्यांना समजावून सांगण्याचा प्रयत्न करीन. कारण अशा पद्धतीने कोणीही पुढे जाऊ शकत नाही. उलट अडचणींमध्ये भर पडण्याची शक्यता जास्त. आपण स्वतः पुढे होऊन रहदारीचे नियंत्रण करू लागलो तर लोक आपले ऐकणार नाहीत. पण आणखी एका दोघांशी बोलून दोघे-तिघे जण तिथल्या पोलीस काकांना भेटू. आमची मदत करण्याची इच्छा बोलून दाखवू. त्यांच्याशी चर्चा करून काय काय करायचे ते ठरवून घेऊ. कामांची आपापसांत वाटणी करून घेऊ आणि पोलीस काकांच्या मार्गदर्शनाखाली वाहतूक नियंत्रण सुरू करू.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न 3.
रस्त्याने कोणी चालण्याऐवजी पळू लागला तर त्याचे कौतुक करावे का?
उत्तर :
रस्त्याने कोणीही चालण्याऐवजी पळू लागला, तर कोणीही कौतुक करणार नाही. रस्ते, वाटा या चालण्यासाठी असतात. माणसे सर्वसाधारणपणे जशा कृती करतात, जशी वागतात, तशी वागली तर लोकांना बरे वाटते. वेगळी वागली, तर काहीतरी विचित्र घडत आहे, असे वाटू लागते.

लिहा :

प्रश्न 1.

  1. घरोघर व दरडोई वाहन उपलब्ध असलेला देश : ………….
  2. वेगामुळे बेभान होणारी : ………….
  3. अमेरिकन जीवनशैली ज्यांनी पत्करू नये ते : ………….
  4. गाड्यांनी एकमेकांना जोडली जाणारी : ………….
  5. वाहनांमुळे वाचतात : ………….
  6. माणसांवर स्वार होणारी : ………….

उत्तर :

  1. अमेरिका
  2. माणसे
  3. भारतीय
  4. महानगरे
  5. वेळ, श्रम
  6. वाहने.

कृती करा :

प्रश्न 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 8.1
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 9.1

प्रश्न 2.
Maharashtra-Board-Class-12-Marathi-Yuvakbharati-Solutions-Chapter-1-वेगवशता-11
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 10.1
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 13.1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 11.1

प्रश्न 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 14.1
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 15.1

रिकाम्या चौकटी भरा :

प्रश्न 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 12.1
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता 13.1

रिकाम्या जागा भरा :

प्रश्न 1.
वाई, सातारा अशा गावी वाहनाचा उपयोग होऊ शकतो, जर …
i. ………………….
ii. …………………
उत्तर :
वाई, सातारा अशा गावी वाहनाचा उपयोग होऊ शकतो, जर …
i. तातडीने शेतमळ्यावर जाण्याची वेळ आली.
ii. आपण गावाबाहेर राहत असू.

प्रश्न 2.
इतरांशी मानसिक स्पर्धा करण्यासाठी किंवा आपल्या ऐश्वर्याचे प्रदर्शन घडवण्यासाठी माणसे …..
उत्तर :
इतरांशी मानसिक स्पर्धा करण्यासाठी किंवा आपल्या ऐश्वर्याचे प्रदर्शन घडवण्यासाठी माणसे गरज नसताना कर्ज काढून वाहने खरेदी करतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

सूचनेप्रमाणे उत्तरे लिहा : 

प्रश्न 1.
वाहनाचा वेग बेताचा हवा, असे लेखक सांगतात त्यामागील कारण लिहा.
उत्तर :
वाहनाचा वेग बेताचा हवा, असे लेखक सांगतात, त्यामागील कारण अतिघाई किंवा अतिवेग यांत कोणतेही औचित्य नसते.

प्रश्न 2.
अपघात होण्याची दोन कारणे लिहा.
उत्तर :

  • वेग वाढल्यामुळे वाहनावरचा ताबा सुटणे आणि
  • पुढच्या वाहनाला मागे टाकून पुढे जाण्याचा हव्यास या दोन कारणांनी अपघात होतात.

वाक्ये पूर्ण करा :

प्रश्न 1.

  1. जर वाहनाचा वेग वाढला, तर …………..
  2. पुढचे वाहन मागे टाकून पुढे जाण्याचा जर हव्यास बाळगला, तर …………
  3. रात्री भरधाव वेगाने प्रवास करू नये; कारण ………….

उत्तर :

  1. जर वाहनाचा वेग वाढला, तर त्यावरचा ताबा कमी होतो.
  2. पुढचे वाहन मागे टाकून पुढे जाण्याचा जर हव्यास बाळगला, तर अपघात होतो.
  3. रात्री भरधाव वेगाने प्रवास करू नये; कारण झटपट पार पडलीच पाहिजेत अशी महत्त्वाची कामे दरवेळी नसतात.

व्याकरण :

वाक्यप्रकार:

वाक्यांच्या आशयावरून वाक्यप्रकार ओळखा :

प्रश्न 1.

  1. वेग हे गतीचे रूप आहे. → [ ]
  2. जीवनाची ही टोके सांधणार कशी? → [ ]
  3. बापरे! किती हा जीवघेणा वेग! → [ ]

उत्तर :

  1. विधानार्थी वाक्य
  2. प्रश्नार्थी वाक्य
  3. उद्गारार्थी वाक्य

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

प्रश्न 2.
क्रियापदाच्या रूपांवरून वाक्यप्रकार ओळखा :

  1. गतीला जेव्हा दिशा असते, तेव्हाच ती प्रगती या संज्ञेला पात्र ठरते. → [ ]
  2. सुसाट गतीला आवरा. → [ ]
  3. कामापुरते व कामासाठी वाहन काढावे. → [ ]
  4. वाहनांच्या वेगाची चिंता वाटते. → [ ]

उत्तर :

  1. संकेतार्थी वाक्य
  2. आज्ञार्थी वाक्य
  3. विध्यर्थी वाक्य
  4. स्वार्थी वाक्य

प्रयोग ओळखा :

प्रश्न 1.

  1. अचानक वेग वाढतो. → [ ]
  2. माणसाने वाहन चालविले. → [ ]
  3. माणसाने वेगाला आवरावे. → [ ]

उत्तर :

  1. कर्तरी प्रयोग
  2. कर्मणी प्रयोग
  3. भावे प्रयोग

अलंकार :

पुढील अलंकार ओळखा :

प्रश्न 1.
आईसारखे दैवत आईच होय!
उत्तर :
अनन्वय अलंकार

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1 वेगवशता

शब्दार्थ :

  1. प्रगती – जीवनाचा स्तर, दर्जा उंचावणे.
  2. अगतिक – असहाय, केविलवाणे.
  3. अवखळ – खट्याळ, उपद्रवी.
  4. उरकणे – आटोपणे.
  5. यथाप्रमाण – आवश्यक तेवढे.
  6. त्वरा – घाई, जलदगती.
  7. कृतकृत्य – धन्य, यशस्वी.
  8. अनिवार – अतिशय.
  9. भावविवश – हळवा, भावनाप्रधान.
  10. यथासांग – (यथा + स + अंग) आवश्यक त्या सर्व बाजूंनी.

वाक्प्रचार व त्याचा अर्थ :

यथासांग पार पाडणे – सर्व बाजू पूर्ण करून पार पाडणे.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Marathi Yuvakbharati 12th Digest Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

12th Marathi Guide Chapter 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय Textbook Questions and Answers

कृती 

1. कृती करा.

प्रश्न अ.
करेचे घटक
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 1
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 7

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

प्रश्न आ.
करेचर वैविषट
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 2
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 8

2. उत्तरे लिहा.

प्रश्न अ.
कथा म्हणजे काय ते थोडक्यात स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
कथेमध्ये घटना असतात. या घटनांना एखादया सूत्रानुसार गुंफण्यासाठी कथानक असते. कथानकात पात्रे असतात. वास्तवातल्या माणसांसारखीच ही पात्रे चित्रित केलेली असतात. वास्तवातली माणसे जशी एकमेकांशी वागतात, तशीच पात्रेसुद्धा एकमेकांशी वागतात. ती एकमेकांशी भांडतात. एकमेकांना मदत करतात. एकमेकांवर प्रेम करतात. राग, लोभ, प्रेम, असूया, दया, सहानुभूती वगैरे भावभावना वास्तवातल्या माणसांमध्ये असतात. तशाच भावभावना पात्रांमध्येही असतात. पात्रांच्या एकमेकांशी वागण्यातून घटना निर्माण होतात. तसेच, कथेमध्ये स्थळ, काळ, वेळ यांचेही चित्रण केलेले असते. कथेच्या विषयानुसार वातावरणही असते. पात्रांच्या परस्परांशी वागण्यातून ताणतणाव, संघर्ष, गुंतागुंत निर्माण होते. या सर्व घटकांनी युक्त अशी रचना घेऊन कथा निर्माण होते. तिला समर्पक शीर्षक मिळाले की कथा परिपूर्ण होते.

प्रश्न आ.
कथेचे कोणतेही दोन घटक सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
(१) कथाबीज : कथेत अनेक घटना असतात. लेखक या घटनांची सुंदर गुंफण करतो. ही सुंदर गुंफण म्हणजे कथा होय. ही संपूर्ण कथा म्हणा किंवा घटनांची मालिका म्हणा, आपण आत्यंतिक संक्षिप्त स्वरूपात दोन-तीन वाक्यांत सांगू शकतो. संपूर्ण कथेची ही संक्षिप्त घटना होय. हे संक्षिप्त रूप म्हणजे कथाबीज होय.

उदा., पुढील कथाबीज पाहा : “हा आपलाच मुलगा आहे’, असा एकाच मुलाच्या बाबतीत दावा करणाऱ्या दोन स्त्रियांचे भांडण न्यायाधीशांकडे जाते. आपल्या बुद्धिचातुर्याने न्यायनिवाडा करून न्यायाधीश खऱ्या आईला तिचा मुलगा मिळवून देतात.

(२) पात्रचित्रण : पात्र म्हणजे कथानकातील व्यक्तीच होत. वास्तवातील माणसांसारखेच पात्रांचे चित्रण लेखक करतो. या व्यक्तींच्या वृत्ती-प्रवृत्ती, त्यांच्या भावभावना, त्यांचे विचार, कल्पना, त्यांचे वागणे वगैरे सर्वच बाबी लेखक वास्तवातील माणसांसारखेच रंगवतो. त्यांचे राग, लोभ, प्रेम, द्वेष, हेवेदावे वास्तवातील माणसांसारखेच रंगवलेले असते. वाचकांना ही पात्रे खऱ्याखुऱ्या माणसांसारखी वाटतात. त्यांच्याशी ते समरस होतात आणि कथेचा आस्वाद घेतात. पात्रांच्या वागण्यातून कथानक हळूहळू उलगडत जाते. पात्रचित्रण हा घटक कथेमध्ये यामुळे खूप महत्त्वाचे कार्य करतो.

प्रश्न इ.
कथेची कोणतीही दोन वैशिष्ट्ये तुमच्या शब्दांत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
(१) कथा मनोरंजन करते : कथा मनोरंजन करते म्हणजे कथा वाचताना वाचकाला आनंद मिळतो. त्याचे मन कथेत गुंतून राहते. वाचक कथा वाचताना कथेतील पात्रांच्या जगात प्रवेश करतो. त्याला नेहमीच्या ताणतणावांनी भरलेल्या जगाहून वेगळ्या जगात विहार करायला मिळते. वास्तवातील ताणतणावांपासून तो काही काळ दूर जातो. या घटनेतून त्याला आनंद मिळतो. कथेमार्फत वाचकाला ५ मनुष्यस्वभावाचे अनेक नमुने पाहायला मिळतात. माणसाच्या स्वभावाविषयीची त्याची जाण वाढते. याचा त्याला आनंदच होतो. काही कथा तर विनोदनिर्मितीसाठीच लिहिल्या जातात. त्या कथांमुळे वाचक खळखळून हसतो. या सर्व बाबींमुळे वाचकाचे मनोरंजनच होते. कथेचे ते एक मोठे वैशिष्ट्य ठरते.

(२) कथेमुळे सुसंस्कार होतात : कथेमध्ये पात्रे असतात. ती वास्तवातील माणसांसारखीच रंगवलेली असतात. त्यांच्या वागण्याबोलण्यातून, घटना-प्रसंगांतून, चांगल्या-वाईट मूल्यांचे दर्शन घडते. कथेमध्ये चांगल्या व वाईट मूल्यांच्या संघर्षात चांगल्या मूल्यांचा विजय दाखवलेला असतो. या संघर्ष-दर्शनाने वाचकाला प्रेरणा मिळते; . स्फूर्ती मिळते. वाचक त्यातून बोध घेतो. स्वातंत्र्य, समता, बंधुभाव, न्याय, मानवता अशा कितीतरी उदात्त मूल्यांचा वाचकाच्या मनावर संस्कार होतो. आपण स्वत:च्या जीवनात कोणत्या मार्गाने जावे, कोणता मार्ग टाळावा याचे दिग्दर्शन होते. हे सुसंस्कारच होत.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

प्रश्न ई.
‘कथाकथनासाठी कथेची निवड करणे फार महत्त्वाचे आणि तितकेच जबाबदारीचे काम असते’, हे विधान तुमच्या शब्दांत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
कथाकथनासाठी कथा निवडताना श्रोते कोणत्या वर्गातील आहेत, हे प्रथम लक्षात घ्यावे लागते. ग्रामीण, शहरी, शिक्षित, अशिक्षित, उच्चभ्रू वर्गातील की सर्वसाधारण वर्गातील, स्त्रिया, ज्येष्ठ नागरिक, कारखान्यातील कामगार, मंत्रालयातील कर्मचारी, महाविदयालयीन अशांपैकी कोणत्या वर्गातील श्रोते बहुसंख्येने असतील, हे आधी पाहावे लागते, कारण या प्रत्येक वर्गातील श्रोत्यांच्या जीवनविषयक धारणा वेगवेगळ्या असतात. त्यांच्या अभिरुचीचा स्तर वेगवेगळा असतो. तसेच, कथाकथनाचा कालावधी किती, हाही मुद्दा खूप महत्त्वाचा असतो. श्रोत्यांच्या अवधानकाळाचेही भान बाळगावे लागते. एवढे पाहिल्यावर कथा कोणत्या प्रकारची, तिची लांबी किती हेही ठरवावे लागते. या सर्व कसोट्यांना उतरणारी कथा निवडावी लागते. ही निवड जबाबदारीने केली नाही, तर कथाकथनाचा कार्यक्रम साफ कोसळण्याचा धोका असतो.

प्रश्न उ.
कथेच्या लोकप्रियतेची कारणे लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 3
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 9

प्रश्न ऊ.
कथेच्या सादरीकरणासाठी आवश्यक भाषिक कौशल्ये लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 4
उत्तर :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय 10

3. कथेच्या शीर्षकाबाबत तुमचे मत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
कथा पूर्ण झाल्यावर एक अवघड कामगिरी लेखकाला पार पाडावी लागते. ती म्हणजे कथेचे शीर्षक निश्चित करणे. शीर्षक निश्चित करणे हे खूप जिकिरीचे काम असते. कारण शीर्षकाकडून खूप अपेक्षा सर्वांच्या मनात असतात. शीर्षक हे कथेचा चेहेरा असते. चेहेऱ्यावरून जशी माणसाच्या व्यक्तिमत्त्वाची खूण पटते, तशी शीर्षकावरून कथेच्या व्यक्तिमत्त्वाची ओळख पटत असते.

शीर्षक आकर्षक हवे, त्यासाठी आकर्षक शब्दयोजना करण्याचा प्रयत्न लेखकाकडून होतो. मग एखादी लोकप्रिय म्हण, वाक्प्रचार, सुप्रसिद्ध लोकोक्ती, प्रचलित प्रभावी शब्दप्रयोग यांचा विचार केला जातो. या घटकांमुळे वाचकांचे कथेकडे लक्ष आकर्षिक व्हायला हवे. शीर्षकाने वाचकाच्या मनात कुतूहल निर्माण केले पाहिजे. हे सर्व आवश्यक असते. तरीही हा बराचसा बाह्य भाग झाला. शीर्षकातून कथेतील मूल्यांचा संघर्ष, नैतिक संघर्ष यांचे सूचन झाले पाहिजे. कथेचे सारच जर शीर्षकातून व्यक्त करता आले, तर ते फारच उत्तम. शीर्षक ही आकाराने खूप लहानशी गोष्ट आहे. पण ती खूप वेळ व शक्ती खर्च करायला लावणारी मोठी बाब आहे.

4. ‘कथा आजही लोकप्रिय आहे’, या विधानाबाबतचे तुमचे मत सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तर :
कथावाङ्मय हे आजही लोकप्रिय आहे. मनोरंजन करणे आणि उद्बोधन करणे या दोन कारणांसाठी कथावाङ्मय खूप वापरले गेले आहे. द. मा. मिरासदार, शंकर पाटील, व. पु. काळे, पु. ल. देशपांडे हे दोन पिढ्यांमागचे लेखक आजही लोकप्रिय आहेत. राजकीय, सामाजिक, धार्मिक कारणांनी समाजात प्रचंड उलथापालथी चालू आहेत, या उलथापालथीमध्ये आपापल्या मतांचा प्रचार करण्यासाठी, लोकांचे मन वळवण्यासाठी समाजमाध्यमांवर कथांचा मोठ्या प्रमाणावर वापर झाला आहे. हे कथावाङ्मयाच्या लोकप्रियतेचे लक्षण आहे.

सध्याचा काळ हा खूप धावता काळ आहे. लोकांकडे वेळ खूप कमी आहे. अशा वेळी कमी वेळात कथाच प्रभावीपणे सादर होऊ शकली आहे. दुसरे असे की मराठी कथेने आता विविध विषयांना स्वीकारले आहे. जीवनाच्या सर्व क्षेत्रांचे प्रतिबिंब मराठी कथेत पडू लागले आहे. म्हणून कथा लोकप्रिय झाली आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

5. प्रभावी कथाकथनासाठी कथाकथन करणाऱ्याने कोणकोणत्या गोष्टींची काळजी घेतली पाहिजे?
उत्तर :
कथाकथन करणाऱ्याने प्रथम श्रोत्यांचे स्वरूप लक्षात घेतले पाहिजे. श्रोत्यांच्या स्वरूपानुसार कथेची निवड करावी लागते. कथाकथनाचा कालावधी व श्रोत्यांचा अवधानकाल या बाबीही लक्षात घ्याव्या लागतात. श्रोत्यांशी संवाद साधत साधत आणि त्यांचा प्रतिसाद घेत घेत कथाकथन करायचे असल्याने शब्दफेक, प्रभावी उच्चारण, उच्चारांतील चढ-उतार, स्पष्टता इत्यादी बाबी खूप महत्त्वाच्या ठरतात. त्यामुळे कथाकथन करणाऱ्यांकडे वाचिक अभिनयाचे कौशल्य असावेच लागते. आणखी एक बाब लक्षात घ्यायला हवी. कथाकथन करताना हातात लिखित मजकूर नसतो; त्यामुळे पाठांतर उत्तम असावेच लागते. या सर्व बाबींची काळजी कथाकथन करणाऱ्याने घेतली पाहिजे,

6. तुम्ही वाचलेली कथा थोडक्यात सादर करा.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय प्रस्तावना

कथा म्हणजे गोष्ट, कहाणी, हकिगत, प्रसंग इत्यादी. गोष्ट सांगण्याची व ऐकण्याची आवड माणसाला पूर्वीपासूनच आहे. ‘कथ् ‘ या धातूपासून ‘कथा’ हा शब्द तयार झाला आहे. कथ् म्हणजे कथन करणे, सांगणे, वर्णन करणे. माणूस हा सामाजिक प्राणी आहे. त्यामुळे आपल्या कल्पना, भावना, आपले विचार, आपले अनुभव इतरांना सांगावेत व इतरांचे आपण ऐकावेत, अशी त्याला तीव्र इच्छा असते. त्यातूनच ‘कथा’ या वाङ्मयप्रकाराचा जन्म झाला.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय कथा म्हणजे काय?

कथेत घटना-प्रसंग असतात. पात्रे असतात. घटना-प्रसंग असल्याने स्थळ, काळ, वेळ या बाबी असणारच, या सगळ्यांना व्यवस्थित गुंफण्यासाठी कथानक असते. कथेमध्ये या सर्व बाबी आवश्यक असतात. कथेतील पात्रांचे एकमेकांशी बरेवाईट संबंध असतात. त्यांतून ताणतणाव, संघर्ष, गुंतागुंत निर्माण होते. पात्रांतले ताणतणाव, संघर्ष वाढले की, उत्कर्षबिंदू निर्माण होतो. हे सर्व घटक कथेचे अंगभूत घटक असतात. तसेच, कथेला एक शीर्षकही असते.

कथेची व्याख्या आपल्याला अशी करता येईल :

“एका विशिष्ट स्थलकालात पात्रांच्या परस्परसंबंधातून घडलेल्या घटनांचे विशिष्ट हेतूने केलेले उत्कंठावर्धक चित्रण म्हणजे कथा होय.’

कथेचे वर सांगितलेले अंगभूत घटक सर्व कथांमध्ये सारख्याच प्रमाणात असतात असे नाही. लेखकाच्या हेतूनुसार ठरावीक घटकांना जास्त महत्त्व मिळते.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय कथेची पूर्वपीठिका

१८०६ साली छापलेले ‘बालबोधमुक्तावलि’ हे मराठीतील गोष्टीचे पहिले पुस्तक होय. त्यानंतर पंचतंत्र (१८१५), हितोपदेश (१८१५), सिंहासनबत्तिशी (१८२४), इसपनीतिकथा (१८२८), वेताळपंचविशी अशी अनेक पुस्तके प्रसिद्ध झाली. ‘मराठी ज्ञानप्रसारक’ या १८५० साली सुरू झालेल्या नियतकालिकातून अनेक लहान लहान गोष्टी प्रसिद्ध झाल्या. यांतील बहुतेक सर्व गोष्टी रचनेच्या दृष्टीने अत्यंत प्राथमिक स्वरूपाच्या होत्या. आजच्या कथेची खऱ्या अर्थाने सुरुवात १८९० साली झाली. प्रख्यात कादंबरीकार ह. ना. आपटे यांनी त्या वर्षी ‘करमणूक ‘ साप्ताहिक सुरू केले. त्यातून त्यांनी दैनंदिन जीवनाचे प्रतिबिंब असलेल्या स्फुट गोष्टी लिहिल्या.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

पुढे अनेक कथाकारांनी अनेक अंगांनी मराठी कथा समृद्ध करीत नेली. ग्रामीण कथा, दलित कथा असे नवनवीन प्रवाह निर्माण झाले. स्वातंत्र्यानंतर शिक्षणाचा प्रसार झाला. विविध जातिधर्माचे लोक शिक्षणाच्या कक्षेत आले. स्त्रियांमध्ये शिक्षणाचे प्रमाण वाढले. या सगळ्या समाजघटकांमधून कथालेखक निर्माण झाले. त्यामुळे जीवनाचे विविधांगी दर्शन घडवणाऱ्या कथा मराठीत लिहिल्या जाऊ लागल्या.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय कथेचे घटक

(१) कथाबीज : कथा म्हणजे अनेक घटनांची मालिका असते. ही घटनांची मालिका आपण आत्यंतिक संक्षिप्त रूपात दोन-तीन वाक्यांत सांगू शकतो. ही कथेची मूळ घटना होय, या घटनेलाच ‘कथाबीज’ म्हणतात.

(२) कथानक : कथेत अनेक घटना असतात. लेखक या घटना विशिष्ट क्रमाने रचत जातो. या रचनेतून पात्रांच्या कृती, त्यांची स्वभाववैशिष्ट्ये, भोवतालचे सामाजिक वातावरण, परस्परसंबंधांतून निर्माण होणारे संघर्ष हे सर्व घटक उलगडत जातात. कथेच्या भावाशयासहित पात्रांच्या कृतींतून निर्माण होणाऱ्या घटनांची मालिका म्हणजे कथानक.

(३) पात्रचित्रण : पात्र म्हणजे कथानकातील शब्दरूप व्यक्तीच होत. या व्यक्तीची वृत्ती, प्रवृत्ती, तिच्या भावभावना, विचार, कल्पना, तिच्या कृती, अन्य व्यक्तींशी असलेले परस्परसंबंध हे सर्व लेखक वास्तवातील माणसासारखे रेखाटतो. यातून जे. शब्दरूप चित्रण निर्माण होते, ते ‘पात्रचित्रण’ होय.

(४) वातावरण निर्मिती : आपल्या अवतीभोवतीच्या परिसरात सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, राजकीय, भौगोलिक इत्यादी घटकांनी एक विशिष्ट वातावरण निर्माण होते. ते स्थळकाळाप्रमाणे बदलते. असे वातावरण लेखक कथेत निर्माण करतो. वाचक या वातावरणामुळे कथेशी जवळीक साधू शकतो. शब्दांतून व्यक्त झालेली कथा मानवी आयुष्यात घडणारी कथा भासली पाहिजे. वातावरण निर्मितीतून हे कार्य घडत असते.

(५) नाट्यमयता/संघर्ष : कथेतील भावभावना एका क्षणाला उत्कट, तीव्र होतात. पात्रांमधील संघर्षही तीव्र होत जातो. आता पुढे काय होईल, पुढे काय होईल अशी वाचकाला उत्कंठा वाटत राहते. वाचकाच्या कल्पनेप्रमाणे पुढे घडले नाही की त्याची उत्कंठा आणखी वाढते. भावभावनांचा हा जो खेळ लेखकाने मांडलेला असतो, ती नाट्यमयता होय,

(६) संवाद : कथेतील संवाद पाल्हाळीक असता कामा नयेत. तर ते चटपटीत, आकर्षक व भाववाही असावेत. पात्रांचे व्यक्तिमत्त्व त्या संवादांतून व्यक्त व्हायला हवे. कथानक नाट्यमयतेने पुढे पुढे सरकायला हवे. कथेची भावनात्मकता त्यांतून व्यक्त झाली पाहिजे. असे संवाद कथेची उंची वाढवतात.

(७) भाषाशैली : कथेतील पात्रांच्या तोंडची भाषा व कथेच्या उर्वरित भागातील भाषा हे कथेतील भाषेचे दोन ढोबळ भाग पडतात, पात्रांच्या तोंडची भाषा ही पात्राचे वय, शिक्षण, सामाजिक दर्जा, आर्थिक स्तर, त्याची मनोवृत्ती इत्यादी अनेक घटकांवर अवलंबून असते. पात्राच्या स्वरूपानुसार त्याच्या तोंडची भाषा लेखकाला लिहिता आली पाहिजे. पात्रांच्या तोंडच्या भाषेखेरीज उरलेली भाषासुद्धा कथेचे व्यक्तिमत्त्व घडवत असते. ती भाषा पात्रांचे चित्रण करते. वातावरण उभे करते. कथानकाला पुढे नेते. ती वाचकाशी संवाद साधत असते. या भाषेत वापरलेले शब्द, प्रतिमा – प्रतीके – अलंकार हे महत्त्वाचे असतातच; पण लेखकाचा दृष्टिकोन, त्याचे विचार, त्याची मानसिकता इत्यादींचाही त्या भाषेवर परिणाम होत असतो. हे सर्व म्हणजे लेखकाची ‘भाषाशैली’ होय.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय कथेची वैशिष्ट्ये

(१) कथा मनोरंजन करते : कथा वाचताना आपण कथेतील पात्रांच्या जगात प्रवेश करतो. नेहमीच्या ताणतणावांनी भरलेल्या जगाहून वेगळ्या जगात विहार करायला मिळते, याचा आनंद होतो. काही वेळा असेही घडते – माणसाला मनुष्यस्वभावाविषयी अमाप कुतूहल असते. कथेमार्फत मनुष्यस्वभावाच्या अनेक तहांशी परिचय होतो, त्यामुळे आपल्याला आपले कुतूहल शमवण्याचा आनंद मिळतो. काही कथाच मुळात विनोदनिर्मितीसाठी लिहिलेल्या असतात. अशा विविध कारणांनी कथेमुळे आनंद मिळतो. मनोरंजन होते.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

(२) कथेमुळे सुसंस्कार होतात : कथेमध्ये पात्रे असतात. ती वास्तवातील माणसांसारखीच दाखवलेली असतात. त्यांच्या वागण्याबोलण्यातून, घटना-प्रसंगांतून चांगल्या मूल्यांचे महत्त्व अधोरेखित केले जाते. चांगली मूल्ये व वाईट मूल्ये यांच्या संघर्षात चांगल्या मूल्यांचा विजय होताना दाखवलेला असतो. कथा वाचकाला प्रेरणा, स्फूर्ती व बोध देते. समता, स्वातंत्र्य, बंधुभाव, न्याय, मानवता अशा कितीतरी मूल्यांचा संस्कार वाचकांवर होतो. आपण कोणत्या मार्गाने जावे, कोणता मार्ग टाळावा, याचा बोध माणसाला होतो. हे सर्व सुसंस्कार होत.

(३) कथा वाचकांची उत्कंठा वाढवते : कथेत सतत ‘पुढे काय होणार?’ अशी वाचकाला उत्सुकता वाटत राहते, वाचक स्वत:चे काही अंदाज बांधतो. लेखक घटनांची गुंफण इतक्या कौशल्याने करतो की वाचकाचे अंदाजही कोलमडून पडतात. त्यामुळे त्याची उत्सुकता आणखी वाढते. मनुष्यस्वभावाचे अकल्पित नमुने वाचकासमोर येतात. त्यांच्या ज्ञानामुळे वाचक अधिक प्रगल्भ होतो. प्रगल्भ होत जाण्याचा एक उदात्त आनंद वाचकाला मिळतो. या उत्कंठावर्धक रचनेमुळे वाचकावर नकळत संस्कार होत जातात.

(४) कथा एककेंद्री असते : कमीत कमी पात्रे कमीत कमी घटना – प्रसंग, कमीत कमी परिसर, कमीत कमी मूल्यांचा संघर्ष यांमुळे कथेचा एकच परिणाम साधला जातो.

(५) कथा भूतकाळात लिहिली जाते : आपण वर्तमानकाळात जगतो, तेव्हा सर्वजण एकाच पातळीवर असतो. प्रत्येकजण आपापली कृती करीत असतो. प्रत्येकाच्या कृतीचे परिणाम काय होतील, हे कोणालाही माहीत नसतात. ते भविष्यकाळात दिसणार असतात. साहजिकच कोणत्या कृतीचे, मूल्याचे कोणते परिणाम होतील, ते अंधारातच राहते. खरे तर, घटना पूर्ण झाली, कथानक पूर्ण झाले की ते सर्व भूतकाळात जमा होते. तसेच, वाचकाची उत्कंठा शमण्याच्या दृष्टीने, त्याच्यावर संस्कार होण्याच्या दृष्टीने वर्तमानकाळातील रचना उपयुक्त नसते. म्हणून साधारणपणे कथा भूतकाळात लिहिली जाते.

(६) कथेच्या माध्यमातून जीवनाचा वेध घेतला जातो : जीवनातील घटना, भावभावना, वैचारिक उलथापालथी यांचे दर्शन कथांतून घडत असते. मानवी जीवनाची अगणित रूपे कथांतून दिसतात. आपण स्वतःच्या जीवनात अनुभवतो, त्यापेक्षा कितीतरी व्यापक, विराट जीवनदर्शन कथांमधून घडते.

(७) श्रवणीयतेमुळे कथेचे सादरीकरण करता येते : समोर उपस्थित असलेल्या श्रोत्यांसमोर कथा कथन करता येते, म्हणजे सांगता येते, कथा श्रवणीय असल्यामुळे हे शक्य होते. कथा श्रवणीय का होते? कारण ती उत्कंठावर्धक असते. वाचकाच्या मनाला ती गुंतवून ठेवते. तसेच, कमी पात्रे, कमी प्रसंग, कमी संघर्ष, कथेतील जीवनाचा मर्यादित परीघ यांमुळे कथा एककेंद्री होते. कधी कधी कथेतील विनोदामुळे आकर्षकता वाढते. हे सगळे घटक श्रवणीयता वाढवायला मदत करतात.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय कथेचे सादरीकरण

सादरीकरणाचे अभिवाचन व कथाकथन हे दोन भाग आहेत :
(२) अभिवाचन लिहिलेली किंवा छापलेली कथा आहे तशीच वाचणे म्हणजे अभिवाचन होय. अभिवाचनात विरामचिन्हे लक्षात घेऊन वाचन करावे लागते. कथेतील भावनांचे चढउतार लक्षात घ्यावे लागतात. वाचनाची द्रुत लय व संथ लय यांचा गरजेप्रमाणे उपयोग करून घ्यावा लागतो. ऐकून समजून घेता येईल, असा वेग ठेवावा लागतो. थोडक्यात, कथेचे भावपूर्णतेने वाचन केले जाते. येथे वाचिक अभिनय महत्त्वाचा असतो.

(२) कथाकथन कथाकथनासाठी कथा प्रथम पूर्णपणे पाठ केली जाते. गप्पांच्या जवळ जाणाऱ्या शैलीत कथा सादर केली जाते. वाचिक अभिनयाची गरज असतेच; शिवाय काही प्रमाणात हावभाव, क्वचित हालचाली यांचाही उपयोग केला जातो. शब्दफेक, प्रभावी उच्चारण, स्पष्टता, गर्भितार्थ श्रोत्यांपर्यंत थेट पोहोचवणे हे फार मोठे कौशल्य असते.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Marathi Yuvakbharati Solutions Bhag 3 कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय समारोप

छपाईचे तंत्रज्ञान निर्माण होण्यापूर्वी कथा मौखिक रितीने एकमेकांना सांगितली जात होती. आजची कथाकथनाची पद्धत टिकून आहे. निबंध, लेख, वैचारिक वाङ्मय, कादंबरी हे प्रकार कथनाद्वारे वाचकांपर्यंत पोहोचवणे कठीण असते. पण कथा मात्र अजूनही कथन पद्धतीने वाचकांपर्यंत नेता येते.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय शब्दार्थ

  • लक्षवेधी – लक्ष, मन वेधून घेणारी.
  • मौखिक – मुखावाटे चालत आलेली.
  • उत्तरोत्तर – क्रमाक्रमाने, अधिकाधिक.
  • चित्ताकर्षक – चित्ताला, मनाला आकषून घेणारी.
  • उत्कर्षबिंदू – नाट्यमयता, संघर्ष शिगेला पोहोचण्याची स्थिती.
  • बहुआयामी – खूप बाजू असलेला/ली.
  • कथात्म – कथा हा आत्मा असलेले.
  • चटपटीत – तल्लख, चलाख, हुशार.
  • रसपरिपोष – रसाचा उत्कट व सर्वांगांनी परिपूर्ण आविष्कार झालेला असण्याची स्थिती.
  • श्रवणीय – ऐकताना उच्च आनंद देणारे.
  • संहिता – मूळ लेखन.

कथा-साहित्यप्रकार-परिचय वाक्प्रचार व त्यांचे अर्थ

  • वृद्धिंगत होत जाणे – वाढ होत जाणे,
  • भंडावून सोडणे – अतिशय त्रास देणे,

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Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Commerce OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Select the correct options and rewrite the sentences

Question 1.
Technique of study of ………………. concentrates on the body movements of the worker.
(a) Motion
(b) Time
(c) Organization
Answer:
(a) Motion

Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 2.
14 principles of management are developed by ………………
(a) F. W. Taylor
(b) Henry Fayol
(c) Peter Drucker
Answer:
(b) Henry Fayol

Question 3.
Management principles influence ……………..
(a) human behaviour
(b) organization
(c) government
Answer:
(a) human behaviour

Question 4.
Management principles are …………….. in nature.
(a) constant
(b) universal
(c) limited
Answer:
(b) universal

Question 5.
Management principles establish ……………….. relationship.
(a) social
(b) legal
(c) cause and effect
Answer:
(c) cause and effect

Question 6.
‘One-plan-one head’ is stated in ……………….
(a) Principle of Direction
(b) Principle of Unity of Command
(c) Scalar Chain
Answer:
(a) Principle of Direction

Question 7.
Principle that focuses on complete change in the attitude of the employees is known as the Principles of …………………
(a) Attitude Change
(b) Scientific Management
(c) Mental Revolution
Answer:
(c) Mental Revolution

Match the pairs

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(A) Division of work (1) Direct communication
(B) Authority (2) Adhering to rules
(C) Fair  remuneration (3) Specialisation
(D) Discipline (4) Long chain of communication
(E) Gang Plank (5) Right wages to the employees
(6) Responsibility
(7) No confidence in management policies
(8) Allotting work to any employee
(9) Exploitation of workers
(10) Misuse of power

Answer:

Group A Group B
(A) Division of work (3) Specialisation
(B) Authority (6) Responsibility
(C) Fair  remuneration (5) Right wages to the employees
(D) Discipline (2) Adhering to rules
(E) Gang Plank (1) Direct communication

Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Give one word/phrase/term for the following statements

Question 1.
Father of Scientific Management.
Answer:
Fredrick Winslow Taylor

Question 2.
The principle of management which says unity is strength.
Answer:
Principle of Esprit de corps

Question 3.
The principle of management explaining about fair payment to workers.
Answer:
Principle of Remuneration

Question 4.
The statements which disclose fundamental truth of management.
Answer:
Principle of Management

Question 5.
Principle of management which states that there should be balance between the authority and responsibility.
Answer:
Principle of Authority and Responsibility

Question 6.
Principle of management which states that every employee should receive orders and instructions from one boss only.
Answer:
Principle of Unity of Command.

State whether the following statements are True or False

Question 1.
Management principles are applicable to all types of organisation.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Employees can be motivated by following the principle of fair remuneration.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 3.
The goal of organisation must not be sacrificed for individual goal.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
F. W. Taylor recommended total six foremen to control the various aspects of production.
Answer:
False.

Find the odd one

Question 1.
Principle of Unity of Direction, Principle of Centralisation, Principle of Order, Time Study.
Answer:
Time Study

Question 2.
Standardisation of tools and equipment, Science – not rule of thumb, Mental Revolution, Division of Responsibility.
Answer:
Standardisation of tools and equipment

Question 3.
Scientific task setting, Scientific selection and training. Principle of Stability of Tenure, Differential Piece – Rate Wage Plan.
Answer:
Principle of stability of tenure

Justify the following statements

Question 1.
Principles of management improve the efficiency of employees.
Answer:
(1) Principles of management if used and applied by the organisation in right direction, they help to improve understanding and the overall efficiency of the employees. Principles of management advocate planned activities and : systematic organisation of men, materials, methods, machinery, etc. which in turn help to improve and increase the efficiency of employees.

(2) Principles of management guide the managers about handling the human resource, reducing the wastage, co-ordinating the activities of different departments, etc. This helps to improve the productivity in the organisation and consequently efficiency of employees. Principles of management also help to develop the objective approach.

(3) Application and use of principles of management leads to specialisation, increased productivity and efficiency. It boosts the morale of employees. These principles help to co-ordinate and control various activities of the organisation and also motivate the employees to perform more efficiently and effectively.

(4) Principle of fair remuneration indicates the management to pay adequate wages and other incentives to the employees. This goes a long way to increase the morale of employees who in turn would put their best efforts to perform their duties more efficiently. Principles of management also help to understand social responsibilities and to carry out research and development activities to improve the efficiency of employees.

Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 2.
Principles of management are applicable to all types of organisations.
Answer:
(1) Principles of management are the statements of fundamental truth which act as guidelines for managerial decision-making and actions. They establish cause and effect relationship. They are evolved through observation, analysis and experiments.

(2) However, managers can suitably modify the principles of management keeping in mind the requirements of the organisation.

(3) Principles of management are also helpful in achieving and attaining social and cultural goals. They are also directed to maximising profit without ignoring social values.

(4) Thus, Principles of management are universal in nature. They are applicable to all types of organisations irrespective of the type, size or nature of the organisations.

Attempt the following

Question 1.
Explain the significance of management principles.
Answer:
The significance of management principles is explained as follows:
(1) Provides useful insight to manager : The study of management principles helps the manager to understand the organisation, its situations and problems. They act as guidelines to find out the ‘ solutions to the problems and handle the situation accordingly. The use and application of these principles help the manager to know the manner in which they should act in different situations, Timely guidance provided by the management principles reduces the wastage of resources and help to achieve goals in exact manner.

(2) Helpful in efficient utilisation of resources : The two resources used in the organisations Eire classified as physiCEd resources such as materials, machine, money, etc. and human resources i.e. manpower. The main function of management is to mEiintain proper balance between these resources by putting them to optimum use and control the wastage of resources. It uses different techniques Emd management principles and maintains discipline and healthy working environment. This helps to establish cordial relation between management and employees. This in turn increases the efficiency level of employees.

(3) Scientific decisions : Scientific decisions in relation to business organisation implies systematic and balanced decision. Management principles train and help the manager to tackle the situation tactfully instead of using trial and error method. Managers get an idea to analyse the situation systematically, to search alternative options and their results with the use of management principles.

(4) Understanding social responsibility : A business is a part of the society. It makes use of the resources of the society and therefore, it has to perform some social responsibilities. Management principles guide the managers to understand and perform social responsibilities so that management can focus on providing quality products at reasonable prices, avoiding unfair trade practices and artificial monopolistic situations in the market, fair remuneration to employees, heEdthy working environment, standard tools and equipment, etc.

(5) Encourage Research and Development : Principles of management are evolutionary in nature and have evolved with passage of time. They have undergone certain changes on account of changes in the business world. They are modified and developed over the years to suit the current trends. They stress on scientific study, research and development in the organisation. Research and Development always works to find out new techniques in the field of production, marketing, finance, human resources, etc.

(6) Helps to co-ordinate and control : Principles of management serve as guidelines for better co-ordination and control. These principles help the mEmagers in this challenge to co-ordinate the activities of different departments. Managers can easily exercise control over the performance of their employees. The proper use of these principles helps to achieve the given target easily.

Maharashtra Board 12th OCM Important Questions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

(7) Develops objective approach : By using various principles of management, the manager can develop an objective approach. The manager can find out and identify opportunities, root causes of the problems and can provide appropriate solutions on it in right direction. This approach also helps to build confidence in the minds of the managers.

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Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Organisation of Commerce and Management 12th Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Organisation of Commerce and Management Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

1. (A) Select the correct option and rewrite the sentence

Question 1.
………………… was regarded as Father of Scientific Management.
(a) Henry Fayol
(b) F. W. Taylor
(c) Philip Kotler
Answer:
(b) F. W. Taylor

Question 2.
Principle of ……………… is based on ‘A place for everything and everything in its place’.
(a) Discipline
(b) Order
(c) Equity
Answer:
(b) Order

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 3.
Member of organization should receive orders from ………………..
(a) many superior
(b) one superior
(c) all superiors
Answer:
(b) one superior

Question 4.
Scalar chain means the hierarchy of …………….. from the top level to the lower level for the purpose of communication.
(a) discipline
(b) unity
(c) authority
Answer:
(c) authority

Question 5.
Taylor recommended total ……………….. foremen to control the various aspects of production.
(a) eight
(b) three
(c) two
Answer:
(a) eight

1. (B) Match the pairs

Group A Group B
A) Henry Fayol 1) Eight Foremen
B) Principle of Unity of Direction 2) F.W. Taylor
C) Principles of Management 3) Proper division of all activities
D) Scientific Management Theory 4) general guidelines
E) Functional Organization 5) A place for everything and everything in its place
6) One head-one plan
7) Low wage rate
8) Harmony between the employees and management
9) German engineer
10) Modern Management

Answer:

Group A Group B
A) Henry Fayol 1) Modern Management
B) Principle of Unity of Direction 2) One head-one plan
C) Principles of Management 3) general guidelines
D) Scientific Management Theory 4) F.W. Taylor
E) Functional Organization 5) Eight Foremen

1. (C) Give one word/phrase/term for the following statements:

Question 1.
The study of movement of an employee as well as machine while completing particular task.
Answer:
Motion Study

Question 2.
The technique of observing and recording the time required by an employee to complete a given task.
Answer:
Time Study

Question 3.
Study consists of an organised, systematic and critical assessment of various activities.
Answer:
Work Study

Question 4.
The principle which deals with ‘to do work with innovative way’.
Answer:
Principle of Initiative

Question 5.
The principle which is based on ‘a place for everything and everything in its place’.
Answer:
Principle of Order.

1. (D) State whether the following statements are True or False

Question 1.
The principles of management are universal in nature.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Management principles are applied differently under different situations.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Only some principles of management are important.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 4.
Henry Fayol has given different techniques of management.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
F. W. Taylor has proposed 14 principles of management.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Each member of organisation should receive orders only from one superior.
Answer:
True

1. (E) Find the odd one.

Question 1.
Principle of Authority and Responsibility, Motion Study, Principle of Division of Work, Principle of Discipline.
Answer:
Motion Study

Question 2.
Fatigue Study, Principle of Unity of Command, Work Study, Motion Study.
Answer:
Principle of unity of Command

1. (F) Answer in one sentence

Question 1.
What is principle of unity of command?
Answer:
Principal of unity of command implies that every employee should receive orders and instructions from one boss only and he should be responsible and accountable to him only.

Question 2.
What is standardization of tools and equipment?
Answer:
Standardisation of tools and equipment refers to providing the standard tools and equipment for production and maintaining standard working conditions and environment at the place of work.

Question 3.
What is differential wage rate?
Answer:
Differential wage rate means offering higher rate of wages to those employees who complete the work more than the standard quantity and lower rate of wages to those employees who perform below the standard fixed.

Question 4.
What is Subordination of Individual Interest into Organisational Interest?
Answer:
Subordination of individual interest into organisational interest means the interest of an individual must be given less importance than the interest of the organisation.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of principle?
Answer:
Principle means a fundamental truth or proposition that serves as the foundation for a system of belief or behaviour or for a chain of reasoning.

1. (G) Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentences.

Question 1.
Security in job always affects adversely on the efficiency of employees.
Answer:
Insecurity in job always affects adversely on the efficiency of employees.

Question 2.
Esprit de corps means ‘division is strength’.
Answer:
Esprit de corps means ‘unity is strength’.

Question 3.
Each member of organisation should receive orders from only one subordinate.
Answer:
Each member of organisation should receive orders from only one superior.

Question 4.
Decentralisation means concentration of powers and authorities at a specific position.
Answer:
Centralisation means concentration of powers and authorities at a specific position.

Question 5.
Management techniques are applied differently under different conditions.
Answer:
Management principles are applied differently under different conditions.

2. Explain the following terms/concepts

Question 1.
Motion Study
Answer:
(1) This is one of the important techniques f of scientific management developed by E W. Taylor. Motion study refers to the movements of employees, as well as movement of machine while completing . a particular task. The motion study helps the manager to know the movements required for a person to do a particular job.

(2) This study is useful to manager to eliminate the unnecessary movements or their sequence for doing the job. It also helps the manager to combine some actions or movements in the process. It increases efficiency and productivity of the employees and helps in reducing the wastage of time, raw material and improving the usefulness of resources.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 2.
Differential Piece Rate System.
Answer:
(1) According to F. W. Taylor, the differential piece wage rate plan is necessary to motivate the employees to attain higher standard performance and to earn remuneration at a higher rate. Differential piece wage rate plan suggests that remuneration should be fixed and paid in such a way that average worker is motivated to attain standard output.

(2) In differential piece wage rate plan, the. standard is determined for production by the management. The workers who produce more them the standard are to be paid more in the form of incentives and those who produce less than the standard are to be paid less by way of penalty. This technique encourages those who perform well and motivates those who have performed less than the standard required to improve their performance.

(3) Taylor suggested the differential piece wage system and further stated that the discrimination should be made between the efficient and inefficient workers. This technique explains that, efficient workers should be paid more remuneration in comparison to inefficient workers.

(4) Thus, the differential piece-rate wage plan technique motivates the able employees to attain higher performance and earn wages at higher rate.

Question 3.
Fatigue Study
Answer:
The term ‘fatigue’ implies physical or mental exhaustion. Long working hours with insufficient breaks, heavy working tools, target pressure and poor working conditions lead to fatigue. It reduces efficiency of the employees and creates adverse effect on their health. To reduce fatigue it is very important to keep and maintain the operational efficiency of the workers.

Question 4.
Time Study.
Answer:
(1) Time study is one of the important techniques of scientific management developed by E W. Taylor. Time study is useful to the manager to determine and record the time needed to complete a particular job or task. It is based on the speed of average worker.

(2) Under this technique of scientific management, every part of the entire work is considered in detail and the time required to complete each element of job or task is ascertained. On the basis of the time study, the manager determines the standard time required to complete a particular job. This also facilitates the manager to decide the remuneration to be paid and efficiency of the worker and to control the cost of work.

3. Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Question 1.
Mr. Harshad is an entrepreneur and engaged in production of eco-friendly utensils. Both male and female workers are working in his factory. All male employees are directly working on machines whereas female employees are working in Packaging Department. Mr. Sharath is working as Finance Manager while Mrs. Naina is working as HR Manager who is responsible for recruiting employees in the factory. On this basis:
(i) Identify any one principle of management in above case.
(ii) What is the designation of Mrs. Naina in this organisations?
(iii) Who is responsible for overall planning of the organisation?
Answer:
(i) In the above case, principle of Division of work is identified.
(ii) The designation of Mrs. Naina is Human Resource Manager.
(iii) Mr. Harshad, an entrepreneur of eco-friendly utensils, is responsible for overall planning ; of the organisation.

Question 2.
In ‘Fine Diamonds Ltd.’ 200 employees are working in three shifts. In first shift 60 employees, in second shift 60 employees and in third shift 80 employees are working without sufficient breaks except lunch break and shift change break. No employee is able to complete the work in designated time due to inappropriate time management which results into delay for next shift employees.
(i) Identify which scientific principle needs to be followed by the company.
(ii) Suggest two scientific techniques which can be used for smooth flow of work in ‘Fine Diamonds Ltd.
(iii) Why the work is not being completed in time?
Answer:
(i) In the above case, Principle of scientific management called Science, Not Rule of Thumb needs to be followed.
(ii) Work study based on the technique of fatigue study and Scientific task setting can be used for smooth flow of work in ‘Fine Diamonds Ltd.’
(iii) Reasons for non-completion of work in time are:

  1. Long working hours without sufficient breaks reduces the efficiency of labour.
  2. Inappropriate time management (planning) done by the departmental head (Functional Manager) result into delay for next shift employees.
  3. Standard required time and standard output are not defined by the manager or management of “Fine Diamonds Ltd.”

4. Answer in brief

Question 1.
Explain any five principles of management of Henry Fayol.
Answer:
(1) Principle of Division of Work : According to this principle, the entire work such as technical, financial, commercial, accounting, management and security operations should be assigned to different employees as per their qualification, qualities, capabilities and experience. It gives benefits of specialisation and improves efficiency and expertise of employees. This in turn helps to attain expected productivity level.

(2) Principle of Authority and Responsibility:
Authority implies right or freedom to take decisions. The manager should be given authority to get the work done systematically from the subordinates. Authority should always go with corresponding responsibility, e.g. if manager is given authority to complete a specific task within a given time, he would be held responsible for the same. Manager should have adequate authority to take managerial decisions on his own to achieve the goal.

(3) Principle of Discipline: Fayol insists that discipline is essential for smooth working of an organisation. It helps to achieve the goals set in the organisation. In relation to organisation, discipline means strictly obeying instructions of the superiors. There should be clear and utmost understanding between management and employees in respect to organisation’s rules. It is necessary to observe basic discipline at all levels of management.

(4) Principle of Unity of Command: According to this principle, every employee should receive orders and instructions from one boss only and he should be accountable to him only. If he receives orders from more them one boss at a time, he will not understand whose orders should be executed first. To avoid this, organisational hierarchy should be well defined and each employee in the organisation should know his immediate boss. He should receive orders and instructions from him only and should report to him only.
Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management 1

(5) Principle of Unity of Direction: Fayol advocates “One head for One plan”. It means that a group of employees working on similar activities should have common objectives and must work under one head (senior). All the objectives of the different groups should be in line with the objectives of the organisation. If this principle is followed there will be an effective co-ordination of the individual efforts and energies.

(6) Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to Organisational Interest: According to this principle, the interest of the organisation must always be given greater importance than the interest of an employee or a group of employees. While taking decision, the manager should always consider the interest of whole group rather than the interest of an individual employee. Similarly, employees should surrender their personal goals or interests before that of an organisation e.g. while playing a game a team players should always play to win the game and not for his individual records.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 2.
Describe any four techniques of scientific management.
Answer:
(1) Work Study : Before allocating the work among the workers, systematic work study should be done by the management. Work study includes Em organised systematic and critical assessment of different activities or functions. It is based on the different techniques like time study, method study, motion study and fatigue study.
(i) Time Study : Under this method, the manager observes and record the time an employee takes to complete a particular job or task. This technique is useful to fix standard time needed to complete a specific task under given conditions. It measures the efficiency of an employee and helps to control the cost of work.

(ii) Method Study : In order to get best quality with cost effectiveness, it is important and challenging for a manager to identify the best method from various available methods to complete the specific job. This method is useful to reduce the wastage of time, raw material and to improve usefulness of the resources to achieve defined objectives. It is also useful to determine the methods to handle the raw materials, storage, inspection and transportation.

(iii) Motion Study : Motion study refers to the close study of the movements of employees as well as machines in completing a particular task. This technique is useful to manager to eliminate the unnecessary movements and to find out the best method of completing a specific task. It improves efficiency and productivity of the employees. This method is also useful to understand and decide about the elimination of some elements of a job or changing their sequence for smooth flow of work.

(iv) Fatigue Study : The term ‘fatigue’ implies physical or mental exhaustion. Long working hours with insufficient breaks, heavy working tools, target pressure and poor working conditions lead to fatigue. It reduces efficiency of the employees and creates adverse effect on their health. To reduce fatigue it is very important to keep and maintain the operational efficiency of the workers.

(2) Standardisation of Tools and Equipment:
On the basis of experiments conducted at work place, Taylor insisted to provide standard tools and equipment, standard working environment and standard methods of production. It helps to reduce spoilage and wastage of materials, cost of production, fatigue among the employees on the one hand and improves quality of work on the other hand.

(3) Scientific Task Setting : Taylor laid stress on the need for fixing a fair day’s work. The technique of scientific task setting is useful to restrain the employees from performing the task much below their capacity. As a result, they will complete their task according to the standards given and management will be able to keep proper control on the optimum use of available workforce.

(4) Scientific Selection and Training: By using scientific selection procedures, management easily select right persons for the right jobs. According to this technique, job specifications required to be fixed and employees are selected as per predetermined standards in an impartial way. After their selection, the management should arrange proper training programmes to increase efficiency.

(5) Functional Organisation : Taylor suggested that planning of the work is to be done by different people and actual work is to be supervised by different set of people. Every worker in the factory is to be supervised by two different sets of supervisors. He further suggested total eight foremen to control the various parts of the production. They are categorised as follows:
(A) At planning level:

  1. Route clerk : Explains the movement of work from one machine to other.
  2. Instruction clerk : Gives and records instructions to complete the work.
  3. Time and cost clerk : Decides the time to complete the work and work out the cost.
  4. Discipline : To see to it that workers work as per factory rules.

(B) At implementation level:

  1. Gang Boss : Gets the actual work done from employees.
  2. Speed Boss : Takes care that work is done in specified time.
  3. Repair Boss : Manages security and maintenance of mechanism.
  4. Inspector : Makes sure that work is completed as per specified standards.

5. Justify the following statements

Question 1.
Principles of management are flexible in nature.
Answer:
(1) Principles of management are the statements of fundamental truth which act as guidelines for managerial decision-making and action. They establish cause and effect relationship. They are evolved through observation, analysis and experiments.

(2) Principles of management although fundamental, are not rigid. They are flexible in nature in the sense they can be changed or modified according to the situation and requirements of the organisation. Managers can change these principles to suit the requirements of the organisation.

(3) Principles of management are flexible guidelines providing ample scope for making changes according to the nature of enterprise, its size, competitive situation, etc. For instance, in the context of present business scenario, at many places the ‘family management has been substituted by professional management’.

(4) Modern business world is dynamic. The situations in a business enterprise keep on changing continuously. No two circumstances are identical. Principles of management can be changed, adjusted or modified and used in the enterprise as per its changing needs and requirements. By identifying problems of business changes will be accepted.

Question 2.
Management principles are helpful in optimum utilization of resources.
Answer:
(1) Materials or abstract qualities that a person or organisation uses to perform the work is called resources, e.g. tools, stocks, time, employees, etc. In every organisation, two types of resources are used and they are: (i) Physical resources such as materials, machines, money, etc. and (ii) Human resources i.e. manpower.

(2) The different types of resources are used in the organisation to manufacture or produce different types of goods and services. The resources are scarce in relation to their demand and therefore resources should not be wasted and misused. They should be used carefully and up to their optimum capacity.

(3) The basic aim and function of management are to make and maintain proper balance and allocate these resources by putting them to maximum possible use and control on wastage of resources. Through the use of different techniques and management principles, management maintains discipline and healthy working environment to establish cordial relationship with the employees.

(4) It helps to increase the efficiency level of employees and to manage the administration effectively, e.g. use of modern and standard tools and machineries. It also helps to increase quality, productivity and level of efficiency of human resources.

Question 3.
Principle of equity is important.
Answer:
(1) The principle of equity suggests that employer should give kind, fair, just and equal treatment to the employees. Managers should be kind, impartial and fair to their subordinates.

(2) The principle of equity further states that there should not be any discrimination between the employees while making the payment of wages. The employees working on the same level but in different departments should be paid same wages.

(3) The wages payable to employees should not depend on the departments but the level at which they are working, e.g. Foremen should be paid higher wages than that is paid to employees working under them.

(4) The principle of equity also states that there should not be any discrimination between the employees while distributing work between them. As far as possible, there should be equal distribution of work. Thus, equality in treatment of employees boosts the morale and develops a sense of belongingness among the employees. It helps to develop loyalty of employees towards organisation and avoid conflicts.

Question 4.
Taylor emphasized on standardization of tools and equipment.
Answer:
(1) Fredrick Winslow Taylor published Principles of Scientific Management. His primary objective was to increase efficiency of employees by scientifically designing jobs. According to his views, management problems should be solved through experiments and use of scientific techniques rather than rules of thumb and triad and error approach.

(2) Taylor had conducted many experiments at workplace and as a result of those experiments, he advocated standardisation of tools and equipment. Standard here, means a level of quality or achievement, especially a level that is acceptable.

(3) According to him, standardised working environment and standardised methods of production tools and equipment help to reduce spoilage and wastage of materials. This in turn reduces the overall cost of production.

(4) Similarly use of standardised tools and equipment increases efficiency of employees and also helps to reduce fatigue among the workers. This improves the quality of work.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 5.
Differential piece wage rate plan is necessary.
Answer:
(1) According to F. W. Taylor, the differential piece wage rate plan is necessary to motivate the employees to attain higher standard performance and to earn remuneration at a higher rate. Differential piece wage rate plan suggests that remuneration should be fixed and paid in such a way that average worker is motivated to attain standard output.

(2) In differential piece wage rate plan, the. standard is determined for production by the management. The workers who produce more them the standard are to be paid more in the form of incentives and those who produce less than the standard are to be paid less by way of penalty. This technique encourages those who perform well and motivates those who have performed less than the standard required to improve their performance.

(3) Taylor suggested the differential piece wage system and further stated that the discrimination should be made between the efficient and inefficient workers. This technique explains that, efficient workers should be paid more remuneration in comparison to inefficient workers.

(4) Thus, the differential piece-rate wage plan technique motivates the able employees to attain higher performance and earn wages at higher rate.

6. Attempt the Following

Question 1.
Explain in detail any five Principles of Management given by Henry Fayol’s?
Answer:
(1) Principle of Division of Work : According to this principle, the entire work such as technical, financial, commercial, accounting, management and security operations should be assigned to different employees as per their qualification, qualities, capabilities and experience. It gives benefits of specialisation and improves efficiency and expertise of employees. This in turn helps to attain expected productivity level.

(2) Principle of Authority and Responsibility:
Authority implies right or freedom to take decisions. The manager should be given authority to get the work done systematically from the subordinates. Authority should always go with corresponding responsibility, e.g. if manager is given authority to complete a specific task within a given time, he would be held responsible for the same. Manager should have adequate authority to take managerial decisions on his own to achieve the goal.

(3) Principle of Discipline: Fayol insists that discipline is essential for smooth working of an organisation. It helps to achieve the goals set in the organisation. In relation to organisation, discipline means strictly obeying instructions of the superiors. There should be clear and utmost understanding between management and employees in respect to organisation’s rules. It is necessary to observe basic discipline at all levels of management.

(4) Principle of Unity of Command: According to this principle, every employee should receive orders and instructions from one boss only and he should be accountable to him only. If he receives orders from more them one boss at a time, he will not understand whose orders should be executed first. To avoid this, organisational hierarchy should be well defined and each employee in the organisation should know his immediate boss. He should receive orders and instructions from him only and should report to him only.
Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management 2

(5) Principle of Unity of Direction: Fayol advocates “One head for One plan”. It means that a group of employees working on similar activities should have common objectives and must work under one head (senior). All the objectives of the different groups should be in line with the objectives of the organisation. If this principle is followed there will be an effective co-ordination of the individual efforts and energies.

(6) Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to Organisational Interest: According to this principle, the interest of the organisation must always be given greater importance than the interest of an employee or a group of employees. While taking decision, the manager should always consider the interest of whole group rather than the interest of an individual employee. Similarly, employees should surrender their personal goals or interests before that of an organisation e.g. while playing a game a team players should always play to win the game and not for his individual records.

Question 2.
Describe different techniques of scientific management.
Answer:
(1) Work Study : Before allocating the work among the workers, systematic work study should be done by the management. Work study includes Em organised systematic and critical assessment of different activities or functions. It is based on the different techniques like time study, method study, motion study and fatigue study.
(i) Time Study : Under this method, the manager observes and record the time an employee takes to complete a particular job or task. This technique is useful to fix standard time needed to complete a specific task under given conditions. It measures the efficiency of an employee and helps to control the cost of work.

(ii) Method Study : In order to get best quality with cost effectiveness, it is important and challenging for a manager to identify the best method from various available methods to complete the specific job. This method is useful to reduce the wastage of time, raw material and to improve usefulness of the resources to achieve defined objectives. It is also useful to determine the methods to handle the raw materials, storage, inspection and transportation.

(iii) Motion Study : Motion study refers to the close study of the movements of employees as well as machines in completing a particular task. This technique is useful to manager to eliminate the unnecessary movements and to find out the best method of completing a specific task. It improves efficiency and productivity of the employees. This method is also useful to understand and decide about the elimination of some elements of a job or changing their sequence for smooth flow of work.

(iv) Fatigue Study : The term ‘fatigue’ implies physical or mental exhaustion. Long working hours with insufficient breaks, heavy working tools, target pressure and poor working conditions lead to fatigue. It reduces efficiency of the employees and creates adverse effect on their health. To reduce fatigue it is very important to keep and maintain the operational efficiency of the workers.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

(2) Standardisation of Tools and Equipment:
On the basis of experiments conducted at work place, Taylor insisted to provide standard tools and equipment, standard working environment and standard methods of production. It helps to reduce spoilage and wastage of materials, cost of production, fatigue among the employees on the one hand and improves quality of work on the other hand.

(3) Scientific Task Setting : Taylor laid stress on the need for fixing a fair day’s work. The technique of scientific task setting is useful to restrain the employees from performing the task much below their capacity. As a result, they will complete their task according to the standards given and management will be able to keep proper control on the optimum use of available workforce.

(4) Scientific Selection and Training: By using scientific selection procedures, management easily select right persons for the right jobs. According to this technique, job specifications required to be fixed and employees are selected as per predetermined standards in an impartial way. After their selection, the management should arrange proper training programmes to increase efficiency.

(5) Functional Organisation : Taylor suggested that planning of the work is to be done by different people and actual work is to be supervised by different set of people. Every worker in the factory is to be supervised by two different sets of supervisors. He further suggested total eight foremen to control the various parts of the production. They are categorised as follows:
(A) At planning level :

  1. Route clerk : Explains the movement of work from one machine to other.
  2. Instruction clerk : Gives and records instructions to complete the work.
  3. Time and cost clerk : Decides the time to complete the work and work out the cost.
  4. Discipline : To see to it that workers work as per factory rules.

(B) At implementation level:

  1. Gang Boss : Gets the actual work done from employees.
  2. Speed Boss : Takes care that work is done in specified time.
  3. Repair Boss : Manages security and maintenance of mechanism.
  4. Inspector : Makes sure that work is completed as per specified standards.

Question 3.
Elaborate Principles of Scientific Management.
Answer:
The principles of scientific management are as follows:

  1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb
  2. Harmony, Not Discord
  3. Mental Revolution
  4. Co-operation, Not Individualism
  5. Division of Responsibility
  6. Development of employer and employees for greater efficiency and maximum prosperity

1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb : Rule of thumb method is based on personal judgements of the manager which should be substituted with the methods developed through scientific analysis of work. Taylor emphasised more on the use of scientific method for every small job. This principle related with selecting the best way of doing a work after scientific analysis. Under this method, standard required time and standard output are defined by the manager. This method is useful to save time and human energy, to get expected standard output and to increase organisational efficiency.

2. Harmony, Not Discord : This principle states that, in every organisation these should be proper co-ordination and harmonious relations between the management and employees. This will help in minimising conflicts between them and in achieving the goals of the organisation. The perfect understanding between employees and management is also helpful in creating healthy work environment. Organisation should also think about the maximum prosperity of the employees.

3. Mental Revolution : The concept of ‘mental revolution’ was introduced by Taylor. This principle highlights on the complete change in the attitude of the management and employees toward each other. Both should recognise their equal importance in the organisation. They should co-operate with each other to achieve goals or objectives of the organisation. This in turn will increase productivity and profits.

4. Co-operation, Not Individualism : This principle states that there should be mutual co-operation between employees and management. Co-operation, trust, team spirit, etc. are important to avoid internal competition and to create healthy working environment. Management should always appreciate and consider the suggestions given by the employees in decision-making process. The management should treat the employees as an integral part of the organisation in all respects. Employees should also resist themselves from going on strikes and making unacceptable or unnecessary demands from the management. Thus, they should see each other as two pillars of the organisation.

5. Division of Responsibility : This principle states that while dividing the work there should be’ corresponding division of responsibility between the managers and employees. Major planning should be done by the top and middle level management and employees should concentrate on its execution. The reporting of the jobs should be done by the subordinates as per the instructions given by their superiors. For the best performances, the management should always help, encourage and guide the employees.

6. Development of employer and employees for greater efficiency and maximum prosperity : Profitability and best performance of any organisation mostly depend on the skills, intelligence and capabilities of its employees. Arranging and providing training and development programmes for the employees at regular interval or whenever required are absolutely important. It helps to increase profitability of the organisation. Proper opportunity should be given to each ; employee to attain his highest efficiency and ; maximum prosperity.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

Question 4.
Explain nature (characteristics) of principles of management.
Answer:
The nature (characteristics) of principles of management is (are) explained as follows:
(1) Universal application : Management principles are universal in nature. They are applicable to all types of organisations irrespective of the type, size or nature, e.g. government, college, hospital, bank. etc. Their application may have to be modified, but they are suitable for all kinds of organisations, whether in private sector or public sector. Similarly, principles of management are applicable to all levels of management. For instance, the principle of division of labour is applicable to all types of organisations.

(2) General guidelines : Management principles give general guidelines to tackle the organisational situations wisely and to solve the problems systematically. They are not rigid. Application of management principles depend upon the situation, size and nature of organisation, e.g., when we say according to principle of remuneration, the employees must be paid fair remuneration. The term ‘fair’ may vary as per nature, size and financial ability of the organisation.

(3) Principles are formed by practice and experiments : The management principles are developed gradually with thorough research work, experiments and systematic observations. The results of such observations and experiments are developed after their practice in different organisations.

(4) Flexibility : Management principles, although fundamental are not rigid statements. They have to be applied differently under various conditions. It is possible to make suitable changes in their application according to the requirement of the organisation. Thus, Management principles are flexible guidelines providing ample scope for making changes according to the nature of enterprise, its size, competitive situation, etc.

(5) Behavioural in nature : Management is a teamwork or a group activity. Management principles aim at influencing individual efforts and directing them to achieve various objectives of the organisation. They are directed towards regulating human behaviour so that people give their best to the organisation. Thus, principles of management are designed to influence human behaviour.

(6) Cause and effect relationship : Management principles indicate cause and effect relationship. Each principle has a definite effect on the efficiency or working of management. For example, payment of good remuneration and incentives increases output. Similarly, effective advertisement given by the organisation increases the sale of a product.

(7) All principles are of equal importance : All the principles of management have equal importance and they also carry equal weightage with reference to their applicability in the organisation. For example, it cannot be said that the principle of division of labour is more important than the principle of unity of command or vice versa. Management principles are not static in nature. They are not absolute like principles of pure sciences like Chemistry, Mathematics, etc. They are the principles of social science. They are to be modified and applied according to the size and nature of the organisation, keeping in mind the requirements.

7. Answer the following questions

Question 1.
What are the techniques of scientific management? Explain in detail.
Answer:
The techniques of scientific management given by F. W. Taylor are explained as follows:
(1) Work Study : Before allocating the work among the workers, systematic work study should be done by the management. Work study includes Em organised systematic and critical assessment of different activities or functions. It is based on the different techniques like time study, method study, motion study and fatigue study.

(i) Time Study : Under this method, the manager observes and record the time an employee takes to complete a particular job or task. This technique is useful to fix standard time needed to complete a specific task under given conditions. It measures the efficiency of an employee and helps to control the cost of work.

(ii) Method Study : In order to get best quality with cost effectiveness, it is important and challenging for a manager to identify the best method from various available methods to complete the specific job. This method is useful to reduce the wastage of time, raw material and to improve usefulness of the resources to achieve defined objectives. It is also useful to determine the methods to handle the raw materials, storage, inspection and transportation.

(iii) Motion Study : Motion study refers to the close study of the movements of employees as well as machines in completing a particular task. This technique is useful to manager to eliminate the unnecessary movements and to find out the best method of completing a specific task. It improves efficiency and productivity of the employees. This method is also useful to understand and decide about the elimination of some elements of a job or changing their sequence for smooth flow of work.

(iv) Fatigue Study : The term ‘fatigue’ implies physical or mental exhaustion. Long working hours with insufficient breaks, heavy working tools, target pressure and poor working conditions lead to fatigue. It reduces efficiency of the employees and creates adverse effect on their health. To reduce fatigue it is very important to keep and maintain the operational efficiency of the workers.

(2) Standardisation of Tools and Equipment:
On the basis of experiments conducted at work place, Taylor insisted to provide standard tools and equipment, standard working environment and standard methods of production. It helps to reduce spoilage and wastage of materials, cost of production, fatigue among the employees on the one hand and improves quality of work on the other hand.

(3) Scientific Task Setting : Taylor laid stress on the need for fixing a fair day’s work. The technique of scientific task setting is useful to restrain the employees from performing the task much below their capacity. As a result, they will complete their task according to the standards given and management will be able to keep proper control on the optimum use of available workforce.

(4) Scientific Selection and Training: By using scientific selection procedures, management easily select right persons for the right jobs. According to this technique, job specifications required to be fixed and employees are selected as per predetermined standards in an impartial way. After their selection, the management should arrange proper training programmes to increase efficiency.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

(5) Functional Organisation : Taylor suggested that planning of the work is to be done by different people and actual work is to be supervised by different set of people. Every worker in the factory is to be supervised by two different sets of supervisors. He further suggested total eight foremen to control the various parts of the production. They are categorised as follows:
(A) At planning level:

  1. Route clerk : Explains the movement of work from one machine to other.
  2. Instruction clerk : Gives and records instructions to complete the work.
  3. Time and cost clerk : Decides the time to complete the work and work out the cost.
  4. Discipline : To see to it that workers work as per factory rules.

(B) At implementation level:

  1. Gang Boss : Gets the actual work done from employees.
  2. Speed Boss : Takes care that work is done in specified time.
  3. Repair Boss : Manages security and maintenance of mechanism.
  4. Inspector : Makes sure that work is completed as per specified standards.

(6) Differential Piece – Rate Wage Plan : Taylor suggested that discrimination should be made between efficient and less efficient workers. In this technique, the standard is determined (fixed) for production. The workers who produce more than the standard output are to be paid remuneration at higher rates and those who produce less them the standard quantity are to be paid at lower rate of wages. This technique encourages the employees to attain higher standard performance to earn higher wages.

Question 2.
Explain 14 principles of Henry Fayol in detail.
Answer:
Henry Fayol, the Father of Modern Management developed the following 14 principles:
principles of management:

  1. Principle of Division of Work
  2. Principle of Authority and Responsibility
  3. Principle of Discipline
  4. Principle of Unity of Command
  5. Principle of Unity of Direction
  6. Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to Organisational Interest
  7. Principle of Centralisation
  8. Principle of Remuneration
  9. Principle of Scalar Chain
  10. Principle of Order
  11. Principle of Equity
  12. Principle of Stability of Tenure
  13. Principle of Initiative
  14. Principle of Esprit de corpse (Team Work)

1. Principle of Division of Work: According to this principle, the entire work such as technical, financial, commercial, accounting, management and security operations should be assigned to different employees as per their qualification, qualities, capabilities and experience. It gives benefits of specialisation and improves efficiency and expertise of employees. This in turn helps to attain expected productivity level.

2. Principle of Authority and Responsibility: Authority implies right or freedom to take decisions. The manager should be given authority to get the work done systematically from the subordinates. Authority should always go with corresponding responsibility, e.g. if manager is given authority to complete a specific task w12. Principle of Stability of Tenure:ithin a given time, he would be held responsible for the same. Manager should have adequate authority to take managerial decisions on his own to achieve the goal.

3. Principle of Discipline: Fayol insists that discipline is essential for smooth working of an organisation. It helps to achieve the goals set in the organisation. In relation to organisation, discipline means strictly obeying instructions of the superiors. There should be clear and utmost understanding between management and employees in respect to organisation’s rules. It is necessary to observe basic discipline at all levels of management.

4. Principle of Unity of Command: According to this principle, every employee should receive orders and instructions from one boss only and he should be accountable to him only. If he receives orders from more them one boss at a time, he will not understand whose orders should be executed first. To avoid this, organisational hierarchy should be well defined and each employee in the organisation should know his immediate boss. He should receive orders and instructions from him only and should report to him only.
Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management 3

5. Principle of Unity of Direction: Fayol advocates “One head for One plan”. It means that a group of employees working on similar activities should have common objectives and must work under one head (senior). All the objectives of the different groups should be in line with the objectives of the organisation. If this principle is followed there will be an effective co-ordination of the individual efforts and energies.

6. Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to Organisational Interest: According to this principle, the interest of the organisation must always be given greater importance than the interest of an employee or a group of employees. While taking decision, the manager should always consider the interest of whole group rather than the interest of an individual employee. Similarly, employees should surrender their personal goals or interests before that of an organisation e.g. while playing a game a team players should always play to win the game and not for his individual records.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

7. Principle of Centralisation: Centralisation means concentration of authority or power in a few hands at the top level. As number of employees is less in a smaller organisation there is centralisation of authority. Decentralisation means even distribution of authority or power at every level of management. As number of employees and levels of management are more in a larger organisation, there must be decentralisation of some authorities for its smooth functioning. According to Fayol, there must be a proper balance between centralisation and decentralisation, depending upon the nature and size of an organisation.

8. Principle of Remuneration: According to this principle, the employees must be paid fair and appropriate remuneration to keep them satisfied financially and to retain them within the organisation for longer period of time. While fixing remuneration various factors such as the skill, knowledge, expertise, tenure, cost of living, market trend, profitability of organisation, etc. should be considered. It boosts the morale of employees and increases efficiency and productivity.

9. Principle of Scalar Chain: According to Fayol, in the organisation decisions, orders, instructions, messages, etc. must be passed through a chain, i.e. from the general manager to the respective functional manager, then to the supervisor, then to the foreman and then ultimately, to the workers. Similarly, suggestions, information, grievances, etc., must flow from the worker in the upward direction. This is called Scalar Chain. Sometimes, following a scalar chain becomes a lengthy process. In such cases, ‘Gang Plank’ is followed which permits speedy and direct communication between the employees working at the same level of authority. However, for this, permission of the proper authority is necessary.

10. Principle of Order: The principle of order is based on ‘a place for everything and everything in its place’. According to this principle, in every organisation there should be proper, systematic and orderly arrangement of men and materials. There should be a fixed place to keep every material and thing used in the organisation and a fixed place or a seat for every employee. The purpose of this principle is to reduce wastage of time and energy. This principle emphasises more I on the proper and optimum utilisation of physical and human resources.

11. Principle of Equity: This principle states that the management should be fair as well as friendly to the subordinate staff. There should be no discrimination of employees in regard to division of work, delegation of the authorities, deciding the monetary terms, etc. This principle also states that the remuneration should depend not on the department but at the level at which employees are working, It means the employees working on the same level but in separate departments must be paid equal wages. It will also help in avoiding conflicts in an organisation.

12. Principle of Stability of Tenure: According to this principle, at the time of recruitment of employees, the management should assure them about the stability of tenure (i.e. job security). This creates a sense of belonging among the employees. Job security increases efficiency of the employees and minimises employees turnover ratio.

13. Principle of Initiative: Initiative means to do the work in an innovative way in his or her personal capacity. According to this principle, managers should give freedom, opportunity or encourage the subordinates to take initiative while working on given job. Their suggestions and ideas should be invited before framing the plan. This can work as a morale booster for the employees and leads to timely achievement of organisational goals.

Maharashtra Board OCM 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

14. Principle of Esprit de corpse (Team Work): ‘Esprit de corpse’ means union is strength. This principle integrates and co-ordinates the individual and group efforts. It emphasizes the spirit of teamwork. The manager as a leader should create the feeling of team spirit and understanding among the various groups. When entire group of employees works as a team, their efforts get directed towards realising the goals of the organisation.

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Maharashtra State Board 12th Std Physics Textbook Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Textbook Solutions