Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 13 India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 13 India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia
1A. Choose the correct alternative to write the complete sentences.
Buddhaghosh was an Indian _____________ in Sri Lanka.
The founder of Pagan empire was _____________
The ancient name of Cambodia was _____________
(a) Kambuja Desh
(a) Kambuja Desh
1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.
|Set ‘A’||Set ‘B’|
|(1) Finest example of stupa architecture in Myanmar||Shwedagon Pagoda|
|(2) Saivaite temples in the Champa kingdom||My Son|
|(3) The World famous temple in Cambodia||Angkor wat|
|(4) The Centre of Angkor Thom||Dieng Temples|
(4) The centre of Angkorthom – Bayon Temple
1C. Write the names.
Son of Emperor Ashoka –
Ancient kingdom in Laos –
Kingdom of ‘Cham’ people –
Last king of Malayu –
2. Write short notes.
- The first kingdom, established in Cambodia was known by the name of ‘Chenla’.
- The people who established Chenla were known as ‘Khmer’.
- The influence of Indian culture in Cambodia dates back to the Chenla period.
- The kingdom of Chenla was established by Jayavarman II. His capital’s name was ‘Hariharalaya’.
- The kings of Chenla expanded their empire from Vietnam to Myanmar and to China in the north.
- After King ‘Jayavarman VII’ the Khmer empire began to decline.
Vishnu temple at Angkorwat
- (i) The world-famous temple of ‘Angkorwat’ was built in Yashodharpura, the capital city built by Suryavarman II.
- (ii) The temple area is about 500 acres, which is about 2 sq. km.
- (iii) The main entrance is at the west and the temple is surrounded by a moat, which is 200 meters in depth.
- (iv) Among the sculptural panels on the southeast walls of the temple the panel of ‘Samudramanthan’ is notable. Later, it was turned into a Buddhist temple.
- In the 13th century C.E., in Eastern Java arose a kingdom known as ‘Majapahita’.
- The name of the founder King of Majapahita was, Vijaya’.
- He established his supremacy in some of the islands like Java, Bali and also some other islands and extended the kingdom of Java into an empire.
- ‘Champa’ was an ancient kingdom in the coastal region of Vietnam.
- Champa was named after the ‘Cham’ tribe.
- The names of the cities in Champa were ‘Indrapur’, ‘Amaravati’, ‘Vijay’, ‘Kauthara’, and ‘Panduranga’.
- The city of Vijay was the capital of the Champa kingdom.
- The inscriptions of Champa mention the names of its kings and queens and the temples of Hindu deities especially Shiva temples.
3. Answer the following questions in detail.
Explain the spread of Indian culture in Thailand.
- Thailand was referred to as ‘Mueng Thai’ by the ancient people. However, it was known as ‘ Siam’ in the world. In the 20th century, its name was changed to ‘Thailand’.
- Thailand was ruled from the 6th century to the 11th century by the ‘Mon’ people. Indian culture was spread at this time.
- The Indian traditions of sculpture, literature, ethics, judicial science, etc. had a great role in shaping up the Mon culture.
- Dvaravati although smaller and weaker contributed greatly to the development of writing, arts, administration, religion, science, etc. in others kingdoms.
- The remains of sculptures and architecture of the period have been found in Lop Buri (Lao Puri) and Ayuttha (Ayodhya).
- The sculptures include Buddha images a few Shivalingas and images of Vishnu.
- In the 14th century C.E, a new kingdom of Ayuttha was established in Thailand and the kings of Ayuttha bore names with the prefix ‘Ram’.
- Thai Ramayana developed into an independent tradition. It is known as ‘Ramakien’ (Ram Akhyana).
- The stories of ‘Ramakien’ have been preserved in all Thai art traditions including sculpture, folk music, dance, and theatre.
Write about the cultural interrelationship between India and Myanmar.
- ‘Myanmar’ is a neighbouring country of India. It was earlier known as ‘Brahmdesh’. In the 2nd century B.C.E. there were city-states known as ‘Pyu’ in the north and central regions of Myanmar.
- Among the new ‘Pyu’ cities that came into existence at a later period were the cities of ‘Halin’ and ‘Shrikshetra’ were important.
- Shrikshetra was the largest among the ‘Pyu’ cities. The founders of Shrikshetra belonged to the Shakya clan of Gautam Buddha.
- The three Pyu cities of Halin, Beikthano, and Shrikshetra where archaeological excavations were conducted have brought into light many remains of buildings like stupas, cemeteries, and structures built for water management. The three sites have been declared as World Cultural Heritage sites.
- The ‘Shwedagon’ pagoda built between the 6th-10th century C.E. at Yongan (Rangoon) is one of the finest examples of stupa architecture in Myanmar.
- The ‘Shwedagon’ pagoda contains the hair of Gautama Buddha. This pagoda is covered with sheets of gold.
- The ‘Anand Temple’ is another important monument built during the reign of Kyanzittha, the emperor of Pagan in the 11th century C.E. It is the finest example of the combined architectural style of India and Pagan.
Find out the names of World Cultural Heritage in this lesson. Prepare a chart by using the following points: Name of the heritage, place, and country.
|Name of the Heritage||Place||Country|
|1. Sri Dalad Maligava||Kandy||Sri Lanka|
|2. Dambulla Caves||Dambulla||Sri Lanka|
|3. Angkorwat, Angkorthom||Siem Reap||Cambodia|
|4. Borobudur Stupa||Java||Indonesia|
|5. Prambanan Temples||Yogyakarta||Indonesia|