Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Indian Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Indian Society
1A. Complete the following statements by choosing the correct alternative given in the brackets and rewrite it.
Monks in Buddhist monasteries were called __________ (Bhikkus, Bhikkhunis, Rishis)
The Special Marriage Act was passed in the year __________ (1950, 1952, 1954)
1B. Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.
(a) Raj Marg – Hinduism
(b) Teerthankar – Jainism
(c) Saint Thomas – Sikhism
(d) Eight-fold Path – Buddhism
(c) Saint Thomas – Christianity
1C. Identify the appropriate term from the given options in the box and rewrite it against the given statement.
Brahmo Samaj, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Harijan Sevak Sangh
An association was established by Raja Rammohan Roy.
Head of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution of India.
Dr. B.R Ambedkar
1D. Correct underlined words and complete the statement.
Elementary education was imparted in Khanqahs during the medieval period.
Elementary education was imparted in Maktab during the medieval period.
The Theosophical Society was the Initiative of Mahatma Gandhi.
The Theosophical Society was the Initiative of Annie Besant.
2. Write short notes.
Education during the Early Vedic period.
During the Early Vedic period the content of education was based on sacred literature which was written in Sanskrit – which was not the language of the masses. The Yajur Veda commands education for all classes including women. The Atharva Veda states that “all classes have an equal right to study the Veda”.
To enter Vedic schools, it was a prerequisite for students of the first three Varnas to perform the Upanayana thread ceremony and they had to observe Brahmacharya for as long as they lived at the school to study the Vedas. There was an oral tradition of imparting knowledge, which was through rote-learning. Enunciation and pronunciation were an integral part of the oral tradition of learning. The aim of education was to sharpen the intellect as well as for character formation. Value was attached to being truthful, carrying out one’s duties (dharma), devotion to the guru and to one’s parents, hospitality, faith, and generosity.
The Kshatriyas learned the art of warfare and administration. Vaishyas studied trade and commerce and Shudras learned agriculture and animal husbandry. The Brahmanas stayed in the school until they attained mastery of the four Vedas They were known as Brahmanas – the possessors of Brahman (supreme knowledge)
Status of women during the Medieval period.
The status of women deteriorated in Medieval India. Invasions from the Central Asian region along with zealous Brahmanical iron laws were the main causes for the degradation were Invasions from the Central Asian region and zealous Brahmanical iron laws.
Freedom of women was curtailed, knowledge of the scriptures and literacy was denied to them and her status was reduced to being dependent on men throughout her lifetime. Only women from upper castes and aristocracy were given education in private.
Widow remarriage which was permitted in the Vedic period came to be considered taboo. Women continued to be excluded from family inheritances. Practices of child marriage, sati, purdah system, and Devadasi system made women the objects of exploitation.
The patriarchal joint family, the customs of polygamy, and early marriage – all contributed to Curtailing the free development and growth of women.
3. Write differences.
Status of Women in the Early Vedic period and Later Vedic period.
|Status of Women in the Early Vedic period
|Status of Women in the Later Vedic period
|(i) Status: Indian women enjoyed a high status during the early Vedic period.
|(i) Status: There was a decline in the status of women in society in the Later Vedic period.
|(ii) Education: Women during the Early Vedic period had access to Vedic education.
|(ii) Education: Women during the later Vedic period were denied access to education.
|(iii) Participation in Social Activities: Women during the Early Vedic period could participate in social assemblies (vidath).
|(iii) Participation in Social Activities: Women during the Later Vedic period were barred from attending social assemblies.
|(iv) Marriage: Women during the Early Vedic period could pursue their education just until they were married or could remain unmarried. Adult marriage was practiced.
|(iv) Marriage: Later Vedic period was the beginning of the practice of dowry and child marriage.
Education in the Ancient Period and Colonial Period in Indian society.
|Education in the Ancient Period in Indian society
|Education in the Colonial Period in Indian society
|(i) Education: In ancient times, education was provided on the basis of the caste system under the guidance of a guru.
|(i) Education: Schools and colleges were open to all individuals, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, etc.
|(ii) Medium of Instruction: During the ancient period education was imparted orally and the medium of instruction was Sanskrit.
|(ii) Medium of Instruction: During the coloanal period medium of instruction was English and in written form.
|(iii) The Content of Education: The content of education was religion-oriented.
|(iii) The Content of Education: The content of education was not religion-oriented It was secular.
|(iv) Values: The education was based on values like truthfulness, carrying out one’s duties (dharma), devotion to the guru and to one’s parents, hospitality, faith, and generosity.
|(iv) Values: The education was based on values like rationality, equality, social justice, secular approach, and individualism.
|(v) Centre of Education: During ancient times Buddhists established Nalanda and Takshashila which were centers of education.
|Centre of Education: During the Buddhist period, the British established Universities, at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.
4. Explain the following concepts with examples.
During the ancient period, Hindu society was divided into four Varna’s namely: The Kshatriyas learned the art of warfare and administration. Vaishyas studied trade and commerce and Shudras learned agriculture and animal husbandry.
The Brahmanas stayed in the school until they attained mastery of the four Vedas. The first three varnas began to call themselves the upper varnas. They became the ‘twice-born (dvija) because they were entitled to the initiation ceremony (upanayana)
In the beginning, there was flexibility and fluidity with respect to occupation. It was only towards the end of the Vedic period that Varna turned into a rigid jati (caste) hierarchy based on the ideology of purity and pollution. Notions of purity and pollution continue to be followed in everyday practices such as food and water intake, dressing, occupation, worship, social interactions, travel, etc. Thus, the flexible varna system was converted into a rigid caste system.
- Brahmin – priests, teachers, intellectuals
- Kshatriya – rulers, and warriors
- Vaishya – merchants’ traders, farmers
- Shudra – menial work
It refers to laws passed to promote social justice, social welfare, desirable social change, as well as protection of vulnerable and weaker sections of Indian society.
The increase in the number of reformative groups enabled Indians to exert pressure upon the British government, for passing laws against prevalent social evils. Concerns and problems of people and administration get recognized through academic research, scientific studies, media, advocacy groups, and interest groups. Laws are enacted accordingly.
It may be noted that laws by themselves cannot transform society, but they provided hope to those who were victims of injustice oppression, exploitation, and abuse.
Some significant legislation include
- 1829 – The Sati Prohibition Act
- 1843 – The Indian Slavery Act
- 1856 – The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act
- 1872 – The Civil (or Special) Marriage ACT
- 1929 – The Child Marriage Restraint Act
5A. Complete the concept map.
5B. State whether the following statements are True or False with reasons.
The colonial rule has a significant impact on Indian society.
This statement is True.
The British continued to rule India till the 20th century. Several systems were set in place under British rule in India. Some of the social reforms were also possible because of British policies. Let us look at some consequences of colonialism in India which had a significant impact on Indian society.
Education: The British set up a system of education that had a far-reaching impact on Indian society. The medium of instruction in the high school communication among the learned people now became English, schools, and colleges were open to all individuals, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, etc.
The content of education was secular – which included subjects like Mathematics, Science, Philosophy, Sociology, History, etc.
This led to the rise of a new class of intelligentsia, who were of Indian origin but trained in ‘Western’ values, customs, and practices. Some of them played a significant role in the reform movements.
New values like rationality, equality, social justice, secular approach, and individualism gained firmer ground in Indian society.
Culture: Many of the educated elite took to the lifestyle of the British with respect to food habits, dressing, customs mannerisms, attitudes, beliefs, language, sports, and entertainment, etc., M. N. Srinivas referred to this process of imitation of the British, as ‘westernization’.
Administration: The British started new systems of administration like the Economic Service, Education Service, Revenue Service, and Administrative Service. It was the English-educated Indians who entered the administrative services to assist the British rulers in governing the land and its people.
A new judiciary system was created, which took into consideration the earlier legal traditions of the Indian communities. However, its implementation was carried out on a secular basis; each individual was judged on an equal basis, irrespective of one’s caste and creed.
The Indian Councils Act, The Indian High Court Act, and The Indian Civil Service Act of 1861, all led to major changes in the Executive, Legislative and Judicial administration of India.
Buddhism spread to several parts of India and beyond.
This statement is True.
The teachings of Gautama Buddha did not make reference to the concept of God. Also, the sacred literature (Tripitkas) was written in the language of the common people, namely, Pali. Buddha made monasticism an inseparable part of his creed. The function of monasticism was to provide suitable conditions for personal and societal development.
Thus, Jainism and Buddhism are perceived as ‘protest religions’. Both these religious traditions opened their doors to all sections of society. The right to salvation was no longer limited to a particular stratum of society. Understandably, Buddhism with its fewer rigid rules and regulations in comparison to Jainism was embraced by many.
Buddhism gave great importance to the moral upliftment of human beings and directed people to lead moral lives. It insisted on virtues like charity, self-sacrifice, control over passions, and non-injury in thought and action. These virtues are also advocated in the Upanishads and also widely practiced through the Buddhist way of life.
Buddhism thus spread far and wide even beyond the boundaries of India because of the patronage of the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka. As a missionary religion, Buddhism spread to foreign lands like Tibet, China, Japan, Mongolia, Burma, Java, Sumatra, and Sri Lanka.
6. Give your personal response.
Jainism and Buddhism provided hope to all people.
In the Later Vedic period, the caste system and Brahminic supremacy became entrenched. Caste groups became rigid with the passage of time. The varna system now turned into an oppressive Jati (caste) system.
In all this, women became doubly oppressed. Jainism and Buddhism are perceived as “protest religions”. Both these religious traditions opened their doors to all sections of society.
The right to salvation was no longer limited to a particular stratum of society. Understandably, Buddhism with its fewer rigid rules and regulations in comparison to Jainism was embraced by many.
Gautama Buddha permitted women to join his monastic community and to fully participate in it. Buddhist doctrines do not differentiate between women and men, since everyone, regardless of gender, status or age, is subject to old age, illness, and mortality, thus suffering applies to all.
Several Jain nuns have played a very active part in the abolition of sati practice, abolition of slavery of women, and in the prohibition of animal sacrifices.
Jainism, being a religion of religious equality, is devoted to recognizing the rights of all living creatures. Jainism and Buddhism opposed the caste system in India. Thus, Jainism and Buddhism provided hope to all people.
Social reform movements are present even in 21st century India.
A social movement is a mass movement and a collective attempt of people to bring about a change or to resist any change. In the 21st century, India, Industrialisation, and urbanisation technological advancements, and ongoing democratization have allowed people to push for change collectively, and question the legitimacy of the existing order. Social movements can be defined as collective challenges based on common purposes.
The emancipation of women, the spread of mass education, the removal of untouchability, the equality of opportunity for both the sexes and the growth of secularism are some examples of cultural drift which have led to the emergence of social movements today.
Changing society is, to some extent, disorganized because changes in different parts of society do not take place simultaneously. One part changes more rapidly than the other, thereby producing numerous lags. When there is an absence of social justice and a threat to the environmental system, social movements emerge.
For example, Meira Paibi struggle in Manipur was for the safety and well-being of their community. They have shifted their focus from anti-alcoholism to human rights. Women played a major role in this movement. Meria Paibi led a boycott of elections and used relay hunger strikes as means to fight for their rights. Irom Sharmila had been on hunger strike for nearly 16 years.
7. Answer the following question in detail. (About 150-200 words)
Discuss with relevant examples, how the following factors have changed Indian society today.
(i) English medium of instruction
(ii) Lowering the age for voting
(iii) Social legislations
(iv) Transport and Communication
(i) English medium of instruction: Education in the English language was introduced by the British in India. The increased economic and cultural influence of globalisation has spread English, as has the rapid spread of the Internet and other technologies. As a result of this, in many states throughout Indian society where English is not the predominant language, there are English-medium schools. Also in higher education, due to the recent trend towards internationalization an increasing number of degree courses, are being taught through the medium of English.
(ii) Lowering the age for voting: The present-day youth are literate and enlightened and the lowering of the voting age has provided the unrepresented youth of the country an opportunity to express their feelings and opinions and help them become a part of the political process. It has increased the political participation of the people and the creation of public opinion.
(iii) Social Legislation: It refers to laws passed to promote social justice, social protection of vulnerable and weaker sections of Indian society. Concerns and problems of people and administration get recognized through academic research, scientific studies, media, advocacy groups, and interest groups.
Laws are made by the Indian Parliament. Several laws related to civil and criminal matters have been enacted, which may be amended or repealed. The problems of differences in caste, sex, religion, poverty, terrorism are serious and therefore, the impetus is given to enactment and enforcement of laws.
For example, the untouchability offense act 1955, is enacted and enforced to curb the problem of practice untouchability, to eradicate gender inequality the government has passed various legislations. The Special Marriage Act 1954, The Hindu Dowry Prohibition Act 1961. Prohibition of early marriage and fixing the minimum age of marriage under the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, have lengthened the period of education for girls.
Now the position of women is far better as a result of the enactment of laws. Similarly, the distinction between touchable and untouchable is not much felt in modern times.
(iv) Transport and Communication: Transport facilitates trade and commerce by carrying goods from the areas of production to that of consumption. Goods from the areas that have surplus are shifted to those areas which are deficient in those items. Movement of people from one place to another place in search of job, education, and emergency through transport facility. Communication keeps us informed about the world’s events and trends. It has brought in positive changes in the life of the people and thereby enhancing their economic conditions.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Introduction to Indian Society Intext Questions and Answers
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 15)
1. What was the nature of education during the Early Vedic Period?
- During the Early Vedic period the content of education was based on sacred literature which was written in Sanskrit.
- The Yajur Veda commands education for all classes including women.
- To enter Vedic schools it was a prerequisite for students of the first three Varnas to perform the upanayana (thread) ceremony and they had to observe Brahmacharya for as long as they lived at the school to study the Vedas.
- There was an oral tradition of imparting knowledge, which was through rote-learning. Enunciation and pronunciation were an integral part of the oral were to sharpen the intellect as well as for character formation. Most scholars hold the view that the art of writing was unknown during this period.
- Value was attached to being truthful, carrying out one’s duties (dharma), devotion to the guru and to one’s parents, hospitality, faith, and generosity.
- The Kshatriyas learned the art of warfare and administration. Vaishyas studied trade and commerce and Shudras learned agriculture and animal husbandry. The Brahmanas probably stayed in the school until they attained mastery of the four Vedas.
2. State two indicators of the declining status of women during the Later Vedic Period.
The first indicator of the declining status of women during the Later Vedic Period, is education being replaced by marriage and the practice of child marriage. In the Later Vedic Period, since education for girls was stopped, so was the sacrament of upanayana (thread ceremony) which initiated them into the Gurukul. It was replaced with marriage (‘vivaha) and child marriage. Marriage now became the only sacrament (samskara) permissible for women.
The second indicator of the declining status of women during the Later Vedic Period is the practice of dowry. The birth of a daughter began to be looked down upon and there is evidence to suggest the beginning of the practice of dowry.
3. Mention any two characteristics of Indian society in the Medieval Period.
Status of women:
The status of women deteriorated in Medieval India. Invasions from the Central Asian region along with zealous Brahmanical iron laws were the main cause for this degradation. Freedom of women was curtailed; knowledge of the scriptures and literacy was denied to them and her status was reduced to being dependent on men throughout her lifetime.
Nature of education:
Education during the Medieval Period is centered on the Quran. The Prophet Mohammed exhorts all people of faith to acquire knowledge. Unlike the previous systems of learning, there was no requirement for being through with Vedic schools nor renunciation of the world. The Islamic system of education is open to all followers of the faith irrespective of one’s status.
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 18)
With reference to the Colonial period:
1. Name two educational changes.
2. State two economic changes.
3. Cite two administrative changes.
1. Name two educational changes.
- The medium of instruction in high school now became English which also became the common language of communication among the learned people.
- Schools and colleges were open to all individuals, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, etc.
2. State two economic changes.
- The economic system got transformed by industrial growth and the process of urbanization. Caste-based skills and occupations and social relationships gradually changed due to the impact of a changing economy and the rise of factories.
- New revenue systems were started by the British in different parts of India which affected the peasants adversely. There was the commercialization of agriculture also. The subsistence economy was replaced by a market system that was profit-oriented.
3. Cite two administrative changes.
- A new judiciary system was created, which took into consideration the earlier legal traditions of the Indian communities. However, its implementation was carried out on a secular basis, each individual judged on an equal basis, irrespective of one’s caste and creed.
- The authority of feudal lords and zamindars was abolished, affecting the gradual spread of democratic values into Indian society.
Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 4)
Find out about the Eight-Fold Path of Buddhism.
The Eightfold Path is composed of eight primary teachings that Buddhists follow and use in their everyday lives:
- Right View or Right Understanding: Insight into the true nature of reality
- Right Intention: The unselfish desire to realize enlightenment
- Right Speech: Using speech compassionately
- Right Action: Using ethical conduct to manifest compassion
- Right Livelihood: Making a living through ethical and no harmful means
- Right Effort: Cultivating wholesome qualities and releasing unwholesome qualities
- Right Mindfulness: Whole body-and-mind awareness
- Right Concentration: Meditation or some other dedicated, concentrated practice
- In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the dharma wheel (dharma chakra), in which its eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path.
Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 8)
Discuss whether there are similarities between the status of women in the Later Vedic period and modern Indian women. To what extent are there changes? Do some beliefs and practices still continue in 21st century India?
Similarities between the status of women in the Later Vedic:
- The status of Hindu women in India has been fluctuating. It has gone through several changes during various historical stages.
- The Rig-Vedic society was a free society. During later Vedic, Women were deprived of the Upanayana ceremony and thereby of education. Many evil social practices, like the practice of prepuberty marriages, denial of the right of women to education and also to mate selection, etc. were imposed on women. Efforts have been taken to improve the status of women. According to India’s Constitution, women are legal citizens of the country and have equal rights with men.
- Because of the lack of acceptance from the male dominant society, Indian women suffer immensely. Women are responsible for bearing children, yet they are malnourished and in poor health. Most Indian women are uneducated, the constitutional dream of gender equality is miles away from becoming a reality.
- Even today, ‘the mainstream remains very much a male stream’.
- As compared to the past, the status of women in modern times has changed a lot but in reality, they have to still travel a long way.
Activity 3 (Textbook Page No. 12)
Find out more about the impact of Muslim rule on the following:
Present your findings in class.
Painting: Both Hindus and Muslim artists were encouraged at Mughals courts. The development of painting was very fast in the reign, of Jahangir. King Jahangir was interested in collecting pictures of historical interests. Hindu artists were also famous during this period.
Architecture: Mugal architecture started during the reign of Babar. During Mughal, reign mosques were built at Dholapur, Gwalior, and any other places. Akbar was a lover of art. Akbar fort and many other beautiful buildings were constructed during Akbar’s reign. Shahjahan was a great lover of architecture. The Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid, Taj Mahal erected in the memory of his wife Mumtaj are the unforgettable work of Shahjahan.
Music: Babar and Humayun were interested in music. Tansen was one of the nine jewels of Akbar. Singers and musicians were encouraged during the Mughal period. Indian instruments were also influenced by Islam. The Indian Veena and the Irani Tambura merged together to emerge as Sitar.
Activity 4 (Textbook Page No. 18)
Discussion: Social reform movements are still present in India.
Today, social movements have raised diverse demands pertaining to the environment, human rights, and equality. These are powerful means for ordinary people to participate directly in creating positive social change. These are deeply rooted in values of justice and democracy and many a time secure public support.
Example of social movements which we can see today: During the last few decades tribal and marginal farmers are also being threatened by commercial farmers, mining corporations, and dam projects. The Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) movement combines in itself many strands like the movement of indigenous people, the movement against neo-liberal policies, the struggle of farmers to hold on to their land as attempts are being made to take them over for dams, urbanization, industries, mines, and forests.