Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2
1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.
In 1995, the health department of the Indian government launched the campaign, dubbed as __________
(b) Pulse Polio
(d) Triple vaccine
(b) Pulse Polio
The first district in __________ to become completely literate was Ernakulum.
(d) Tamil Nadu
1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.
|(a) National Human Rights Commission
|Protection of Human Rights
|(b) Centre for Science and Environment
|Study of Pollution in Delhi
|Institute for conservation of turtles
|Organisation creating awareness for conservation of heritage
SEESCAP – Institute for conservation of long-billed vultures
2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.
Commission established vide Human Right Protection Act –
National Human Rights Commission
The player who was awarded the highest title, ‘Bharat Ratna’ –
Mr. Sachin Tendulkar
3. Complete the following concept map.
4. Write short notes.
- The Indian postal department started the service of speed post in 1986 which changed the nature of post service.
- This service was used by the majority of Indians, more than three crore letters and parcels were delivered from this service.
- The customer will get the message of successful delivery of their items.
- The postal department now offers courier services like passport delivery, business parcels, cash-on-delivery, logistics posts, and air freights.
- The post office even offers a packaging service. Over one lakh and fifty thousand post offices are offering the services like paying bills, sending festive cards and other objects.
- Since 2016, the postal department has started service of delivering Ganges water from Rishikesh and Gangotri at personal addresses.
- Buying personalised postage stamps with personal photographs and special schemes for philatelists are also available at ‘Post Shops’ opened at 80 post offices.
- The entire world, nowadays, is facing the problem of air pollution which is mainly done by vehicles.
- All most every state in India is facing the problem of air pollution.
- The ‘Centre for Science and Environment’, studied and proved that the increasing number of automobiles and vehicles of poor maintenance are the causes of air pollution in Delhi.
- The institution recommended the following suggestions to curb air pollution:
- Use of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as fuel.
- It was decided that vehicles without a ‘PUC’ certificate will not qualify for insurance and renewal of insurance.
- In this way, we can curb air pollution and make our environment clean and pure.
Eradication of Polio.
- The government of India launched a campaign for the eradication of polio from India.
- The health department of the Indian government launched the campaign known as ‘Pulse Polio’ which was started with the joint sponsorship of‘World Health Organisation – WHO, Rotary International, UNICEF, and Indian Government.’
- The objective of the campaign was not to leave a single child under the age of five years without administering the polio vaccine.
- Awareness camps, home visits, and extensive advertising made this campaign successful.
5. Answer the following questions in detail.
Explain the sports policy of the Government of India.
India is home to a diverse population playing and showing their talent in a variety of different sports. Every nation needs a well-knit sports policy.
- In 2001, the Government of India announced its sports policy. The main objective of this policy is:
- To take sports to all parts of India.
- To help the players to develop special skills.
- To build supportive and fundamental sports facilities.
- To help the National Sports Federation of India and associated institutions to search for sports talent.
- To initiate co-operation from industries, corporate and private institutions for the cause of sports.
- To create awareness of the importance of sports and interest in sports among people.
- In 2011, the Indian government announced a novel scheme for sports named ‘Come and Play’.
- Sports Authority of India gave permission to use five sports complexes in Delhi to local youths.
- They were also provided an opportunity to train under Sports Authority of India (SAI) coaches.
- The National Sports University was founded in Manipur in 2018.
- This university offers different courses from Bachelor and Masters to M.Phil. and Ph.D. Apart from this, sports universities also offer courses in sports, education, sports management, sports psychology, coaching, etc. Research in sports is also encouraged in the sports university.
- Khelo India.
Which programmes and facilities are created by the Ministry of Tourism of the Indian government to attract tourists?
India has a rich cultural heritage. Several tourists visit India each year to see its cultural heritage, monuments, etc. The tourism industry is a continuously growing industry which also gives foreign exchange to the country. The Indian Government has adopted different policies to attract tourists. They are as follows:
- The government provides different facilities to the tourists who visit India. The three ministries of home affairs, tourism, and foreign affairs together created the facility of e-visa which included e-business visas, e-medical visas, and e-visa.
- A facility of giving information to tourists on mobile in Hindi and 10 other foreign languages, for 24 hours throughout the week was started.
- To avail of this facility, tourists have to dial 1363. The information regarding cruise tours, health, and sports tourism, eco-friendly tourism, adventurous sports tourism, film festivals are given through this service.
- Hotels with amenities and premium quality accommodation including luxurious services are available to the tourists.
- The Institutes which offer training courses in ‘Hospitality and Hotel Management’ have been established in major cities of India.
- An advertisement campaign called ‘Atulya Bharat’ was designed to attract tourists.
- A travel show entitled ‘GONORTHEAST’ was released on the Discovery channel to boost the tourism of beautiful places in the northeastern states of India.
- The government took the help of electronic and digital media channels like Discovery, BBC, History is showcasing various programs introducing India’s historical and cultural heritage.
- Swadesh’ and ‘Prasad’ schemes were launched by the Ministry of Tourism of Government of India to encourage visits to 95 pilgrimage and spiritual centers in India.
- The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, and Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality (FAITH) organized Indian Tourism Mart – 2018. This was the first event based on the model of International Tourism Marts in other countries.
6. State your opinion.
Joint military practice sessions are beneficial for both participant countries.
- Such sessions are extremely helpful for both countries because of the technological exchange that happens on these occasions.
- It also helps the armies of both the countries to know, learn and practice new methods of resolving problems.
- The process of modernization of arms gives impetus to further research.
- Due to the development of science and technology, there is increasing scope for the exchange of the latest technology to fight terrorism, to augment our own competencies, and optimum use of modern technology for the end of terrorism.
- The Indian army carried out exercises with different countries e.g., exercise with Oman army at Bakloh, there were combined exercises of Mangolian army and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles.
All of us have the responsibility of taking care of our heritage places.
- India has an extraordinary and vast cultural heritage. It is in the form of ancient monuments, buildings, and other archaeological sites and remains.
- These monuments are the living witnesses of our golden historic era.
- It is our duty to preserve the monuments for the next generations. A little initiate from our side can save our heritage.
- The tourism industry generated foreign exchange on a large scale. Tourists come to India every year to see its cultural heritage. Therefore, it is our duty to preserve and protect our heritage.
- As a citizen of India, we should spread awareness among the people about the importance of the preservation of monuments. A little effort on our side can create desirable changes which will make past, present, and future generations of the country and the entire world proud of us.
Class 12 History Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2 Intext Questions and Answers
Try to do this: (Textbook Page No. 100)
NRHM – Make a list of the benefits of the National Rural Health Mission to people.
- The Indian government launched National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005 with an aim to strengthen the health systems in rural and urban areas. The list of the benefits of the NRHM are as follows:
- It aims to provide equitable, affordable, and quality healthcare services.
- It has strengthened the healthcare infrastructure.
- It has brought down the maternal mortality rate among poor pregnant women.
- The prevalence of tobacco use and the number of tobacco users have been reduced.
- The Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram entitles pregnant women to give birth in public health institutions at no expense.
- The government launched different schemes for community participation under NRHM. Rogi Kalyan Samiti is responsible for maintaining the facilities and ensuring the provision of better facilities for the patients in the hospital.
- Established the Global Knowledge Hub for smokeless tobacco. It also issued an advisory to ban Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.
- After the implementation of various initiates under NHRM many states have shown improved progress in healthcare facilities.
Try to do this: (Textbook Page No. 100)
Make a list of solutions to reduce the levels of air pollution.
Air pollution is the biggest threat to the environment and to all living species. Following are some of the solutions to reduce the level of air pollution:
- Public Transport: Encourage greater use of public transport i.e. the use of railways, bus services or metros, etc. Instead of using private vehicles, people should encourage to use public transport.
- Use of CNG Vehicles: Citizens should also be encouraged to use CNG vehicles as it is a much cleaner fuel than petrol or diesel. New registration should be discouraged by increasing registration charges of vehicles.
- Use bicycles: Using bicycles is the best way to reduce air pollution. The government should mark out bicycle lanes in residential colonies as well as on roads.
- Plant and care for trees: Trees filter pollutants and absorb carbon dioxide. Trees release oxygen into the atmosphere. The practice of planting trees provides more benefits to the environment.
- Use less energy: Use energy-efficient appliances. Turn off electrical appliances when not in use. Get an energy audit done and follow the advice.
- Avoid the use of crackers: Avoid the use of crackers during festivals and weddings as it creates a lot of air pollution and is harmful to birds and animals including human beings.
- Reuse, Reduce and Recycle: The three ‘Rs’ are the best way to reduce air pollution.
- Avoid using chemical products: Avoid using chemical products like paint, perfumes, sprays, etc as they contain harmful products. Try to use products with less chemical content.
- Prevention of forest fires and burning of garbage: Don’t burn garbage or leaves because it releases harmful smoke in the air which decreases the quality of air.
Try to do this: (Textbook Page No. 102)
1990 was the ‘International Year of Literacy’. Make a list of similarly declared international years for special causes and campaigns launched on the occasion.
The following are the international years currently observed by the United Nations.
- International Year of Camelids
- International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture
- International Year of Peace and Trust
- International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable Development
- International Year of Fruits and Vegetables
- International Year of Eliminations of Child Labour
- International Year of Planet Health
- International Year of the Nurse and Midwife
- International Year of Indigenous Languages
- International Year of Moderation
- International Year of Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
- International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.
- International Year of Pulses
- International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies
- International Year of Soils
- International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
- International Year of Small Island Developing States
- International Year of Crystallography
- International Year of Family Farming
- International Year of Water cooperation
- International Year of Quinoa
- International Year of Cooperatives
- International Year of Sustainable Energy for All
- International Year of Forest
- International Year of Chemistry
- The International Year of African Descent
- The International Year of Biodiversity
- The International Year for the Rapprochement of cultures
- The International Year of Youth
- The International Year of Astronomy
- The International Year of Human Rights Learning
- The International Year of Natural Fibres
- The International Year of Reconciliation
- The International Year of Languages
- The International Year of Planet Earth
- The International Year of the Potato
- The International Year of Sanitation
- International Polar Year
- International Year of Deserts and Desertification
- International Year of Physics
- International Year of Sport and Physical Education
- International Year of Microcredit
- International Year of Rice
- International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition
- International Year of Freshwater
- Year of Kyrgyz Statehood
- International Year of Mountains
- International Year of Eco-tourism
- United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage
- International Year of Volunteers
- International Year of Mobilisation against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance
- United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilisation
- International Year of Thanksgiving
- International Year for the Culture of Peace
Find out and tell us (Textbook Page No. 106)
Make a list of employment opportunities generated by the tourism industry.
The travel and tourism industry in India is growing rapidly so many opportunities are available in the coming years in this field. Some of the opportunities that are available in the tourism industry are as follows:
(i) Hotels: Many job perspectives are available in the hotel industry. Some fields of hotel industries are
- Food and Beverage
- Front office
- Security officer/personnel etc.
(ii) Airlines: One can take up the following job in airlines
- Ground staff (Traffic Assistant, Counter staff, Booking, and Reservation)
- Flight Attendant
(iii) Tourism Department:
- Tour guides
- Tour planner
- Information assistants
- Reservation and counter staffs
- Sales and Marketing
(iv) Transportation Industry:
This is an ever-growing industry where one can have many job opportunities. Job opportunities are available in all types of transportation i.e.
- Railway service
- Bus service
- Cruise service or ferry service
- Private transportation – Cars, Rickshaws, Horse riding, etc.
(v) The employment opportunities are also available in the management of adventure sports, theme parks, amusement parks, water sports, mountaineering, children’s fantasy land, etc.
(vi) The other job opportunities in this field include Destination Manager, Itinerary Planner, Travel Agent, Foreign Exchange, Counselor, etc.
Find out and tell us (Textbook Page No. 106)
Suggest ways and means to enhance the heritage and historical tourism in India.
Heritage and historical tourism tend to attract many tourists. Different ways and means to enhance, this type of tourism are as follows:
- Build better roads and access points to the heritage sites, packaged train travel, proper bus connections should be provided to the tourists.
- Aggressive tourism and marketing strategies are also necessary whether it is broadcasting the ‘Incredible India’ campaign abroad, holding different seminars, or offering Indian locations with facilities to promote foreign film productions in the country are some of the strategies.
- The Government of India has already started making a lot of improvements in this area. We need to capitalize on India as a destination. The government should make a documentary based on the heritage of India. One can even design a promotional campaign to enhance historical tourism.
- The historical places always have a story to tell. They offer amazing aesthetics and attract people from all over the world. If tourism is accompanied by mind-blowing hotels, resorts, good public transportation facilities, and delectable cuisine then it becomes an added advantage to the tourist.
Project (Textbook Page No. 108)
Make a list of various business opportunities available at tourist destinations.
Introduction: Tourism is a continuously growing industry. By the early 21st century, international tourism had become one of the world’s most important activities. Various business opportunities are available at the tourist destinations and they are as follows:
(i) Travel Agency: Everyone needs a platform where customers can come to and take advice about tour packages of different places which travel agency provides. The travel agency helps tourists in planning their travel for which they charge their commission.
(ii) Hotel: Hotel business is the best opportunity from which you can gain a high rate of return as well as expand your chain of hotels in the future.
(iii) Online Travel Business: In the modern era, the way of doing business is changing. Now everything is available online. With the change in technology, the way of doing business has also changed. One can start an online business portal where customers have easy access to everything online.
(iv) Photography: Tourists always want to save the memories of the places they visit and a photographer helps them to restore their memories through their art of photography. There is a huge demand for photographers.
(v) Vehicle Renting: Some tourists like to plan their tours according to their own wishes. They don’t want any unknown person to be a part of their travel for safety reasons. Such tourists search for a vehicle that they can get on rent and go in the direction that they want. To invest in this business is profitable.
(vi) Tour Guide: A Tourist guide is a person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural history of the particular place. This is a challenging field with an increase in tours and travels.
(vii) Executive Chef: The executive chef is in charge of a restaurant’s kitchen and is responsible for managing the kitchen staff, planning the menu, and making sure that food hygiene is maintained. This is a well suitable job for people who are passionate about cooking.