Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology
1A. Complete the following statements.
The branches of Psychology that explore relationships among different variables and human behaviour are known as ___________ Psychology.
The study of human behaviour at the workplace is the concern of ___________ Psychology.
One can study the problems of adolescence in ___________
___________ Psychology is concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
1B. Identify the odd item from the following.
Experimental Psychology, Social Psychology, Industrial Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
Clinical psychology, Industrial Psychology, Sports Psychology, Abnormal Psychology
1C. Match the following pairs.
|1. Developmental Psychology||a) Studies organisations, human factor design, and employee training|
|2. Criminal Psychology||b) Studies how people become who they are from conception to death|
|3. Educational Psychology||c) Studies thinking process|
|4. Industrial Psychology||d) Helps educators to promote learning|
|5. Social Psychology||e) Studies criminal behaviour|
|6. Cognitive Psychology||f) Studies the influence of other people upon an individual’s behaviour|
|1. Developmental Psychology||b) Studies how people become who they are from conception to death|
|2. Criminal Psychology||e) Studies criminal behaviour|
|3. Educational Psychology||d) Helps educators to promote learning|
|4. Industrial Psychology||a) Studies organisations, human factor design, and employee training|
|5. Social Psychology||f) Studies the influence of other people upon an individual’s behaviour|
|6. Cognitive Psychology||c) Studies thinking process|
2. Compare and contrast.
Theoretical and applied branches of Psychology.
In theoretical branches, psychologists concentrate on carrying out research and forming theories while applied branches help individuals to use the knowledge gained from research to solve their problems.
The main aim of theoretical branches is to develop principles and establish laws in order to explain behaviour of human beings while the main objective of applied branches is to put knowledge into practice by helping individuals to adjust to their real-life situations.
Some theoretical branches are Developmental Psychology, Child Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Experimental Psychology, Abnormal Psychology while some applied branches are Educational Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Counselling Psychology, Criminal Psychology, Sports Psychology, Industrial Psychology.
For your understanding
The activities of applied psychology range from conducting field studies for finding practical solutions to problems to directly providing services to concerned individuals or organizations.
Abnormal Psychology and Clinical Psychology
Abnormal Psychology is a theoretical branch that studies the unusual behavioural, emotional, and thinking patterns in individuals while Clinical Psychology is an applied branch that studies diagnoses and treats emotional and behavioural problems.
Abnormal Psychology aims to study the causes and factors leading to abnormal reactions like excessive suspiciousness, mental retardation, extreme mood swings, etc. On the other hand, Clinical Psychology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, marital and familial conflicts, drug addiction, depression, delinquency, etc.
3. Write Short Notes.
- Clinical Psychology is an applied branch that studies, diagnoses, and treats emotional and behavioural problems in individuals like mental illness, marital and familial conflict, drug addiction, severe depression, alcoholism, delinquency, etc.
- For diagnosis, clinical psychologists collect detailed information regarding the client through psychological tests and by conducting interviews of clients as well as their family and friends.
- Once the problem is diagnosed, they use appropriate psychotherapy to help the client overcome his problem.
- Clinical psychologists usually work in hospitals and community health centers or they may have their private practice.
- Clinical Psychology is the largest subfield of Psychology.
- Cognitive Psychology concentrates on higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning, and decision making.
- It is concerned with the study of attention, perception, language development, thinking, memory, and problem-solving.
- It also answers questions related to the disruption of memory, different types of learning styles and disorders, causes of speech impairment as well as the functioning of decision-making mechanisms.
- Developmental Psychology studies changes in behaviour from conception to death.
- It is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
- It examines changes across three major dimensions, viz. physical, cognitive, and social development.
- It aims to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviour change throughout life.
- It may study a specific period of life like childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
- Industrial Psychology is concerned with behaviour of people working in an organization.
- Industrial psychologists play a crucial role in selection and placement, workforce motivation, and job satisfaction as well as appraisals and grievances.
- They help to enhance motivation, group morale, and leadership skills among the employees.
- Consumer Psychology is a branch of Industrial Psychology that deals with consumer behaviour, quality of products, brand loyalty, and influence of advertisement on purchasing.
4. Suggest an appropriate branch of psychology related to the following situations.
A husband and wife do not understand each other so they keep fighting.
My friend’s father lost his job and he is in depression.
A 5th standard student is unable to concentrate.
I want to study the process of thinking and learning.
I want proper information about attitude, prejudice, or conflicts in a group.
5. Answer the following questions in detail.
Explain any five theoretical branches of Psychology.
Some theoretical branches of Psychology are as follows:
Child Psychology: It deals with the biological, psychological, and emotional changes that occur during childhood. These changes occur as the individual progresses from being dependent to becoming independent. Child psychologists study problems related to children such as lying, bunking school, stealing, bedwetting. They also conduct researches on effective child-rearing practices and the role of reinforcement in motivating children.
Social Psychology: It studies how an individual influences other people and gets influenced by them. According to Myers, Social Psychology is the scientific study of how an individual’s behaviour is affected by others. The primary focus of Social Psychology is to understand how individuals are affected by other people. It examines issues such as co-operation or conflicts within groups, attitudes, prejudices, friendliness, and leadership qualities of an individual.
Experimental Psychology: It attempts to understand the fundamental causes of behaviour. It studies how people learn, remembers, reason, and respond emotionally. It deals with problems related to sensation, perception, learning and memory. Experimental psychologists conduct laboratory experiments to study how people react to sensory stimuli and perceive the world.
Cognitive Psychology: It concentrates on higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning, and decision making. It also answers questions related to the disruption of memory, different types of learning styles and disorders, causes of speech impairment as well as the functioning of decision-making mechanisms.
Abnormal Psychology: It studies unusual patterns of behaviour, emotions, and thinking. It aims to study the causes and factors leading to abnormal reactions such as excessive suspiciousness, extreme mood swings, perceiving objects or situations which are not real, mental retardation, extreme fear of objects, animals, or situations, etc.
Describe any five applied branches of Psychology.
Some applied branches of Psychology are as follows:
Educational Psychology: It studies all factors related to education. It is concerned with increasing the efficiency of the teaching and learning process. It also focuses on the learning difficulties of slow learners, exceptional as well as average children. Educational psychologists are primarily associated with schools, colleges, and universities. They try to design intervention programs to develop motivation, effective study habits, and a better classroom environment. They also deal with behavioral issues of children such as learning disorders, hyperactivity, lack of concentration, ADHD.
Counselling Psychology: It deals with milder behavioural problems. Counselling psychologists offer guidance about adjustment issues faced by a person, e.g. difficulties experienced by a person in studies, personal life issues, or workplace issues. Counselling psychologists are also involved in vocational and career guidance.
Criminal Psychology: It deals with the motives behind criminal behaviour. Criminal psychologists are concerned with identifying the causes of crime, studying the personality of criminals, suggesting preventive measures to control criminal behaviour, and implementing plans for criminal rehabilitation. They play a significant role in the forensic department to uncover the scene of the crime. They generally work with the law enforcement department or the criminal investigation department or social organisations working for rehabilitation.
Sports Psychology: It helps sportspersons to maintain their motivation and stamina during the actual performance. It also aids sportspersons to maintain themselves when they are not on the field. Sports psychologists help players to maintain composure when they are under pressure, maintain emotional balance when they go through a bad patch, and maintain wellness when they are recovering from personal injuries.
Industrial Psychology: It is concerned with the behaviour of people working in an organisation. Industrial psychologists play a crucial role in selection and placement, workforce motivation, and job satisfaction as well as appraisals and grievances. Consumer Psychology is a branch of Industrial Psychology that deals with consumer behaviour.
applied branch of Psychology. The development of aviation and space exploration programmes has accelerated growth in Engineering Psychology.
Write any five career opportunities in Psychology.
Counselling Psychology: An individual can become an educational counsellor or vocational counsellor or marriage counsellor and help people to solve career-related or personal problems.
Social Psychology: An individual can become a public relations officer or social welfare officer or labour welfare officer.
These officers attempt to solve various social problems.
Sports Psychology: An individual can become a sports counsellor and work in gyms, schools, or professional sports teams. These counsellors help to improve the confidence, concentration, and morale of players.
Military Psychology: An individual can become an army mental health specialist or army psychologist, navy psychologist, air force psychologist, or marine psychologist. These psychologists play a role in the selection of army officers. They also improve the morale of people in defense services.
Rehabilitation Psychology: An individual can become a special educator or rehabilitation psychologist or disaster management and rehabilitation officer. A special educator works for specially-abled persons while a rehabilitation psychologist works in remand homes. A disaster management and rehabilitation officer helps in disaster management and rehabilitation.
Activity 3. (Textbook Page No. 14)
Try to find at least one example that can fit into each of the above sub-branches of theoretical Psychology.
- Developmental Psychology: Mr. Mehta conducted a comparative study of physical and cognitive development during early childhood and late childhood.
- Child Psychology: Mr. Singh studied the impact of parental divorce on the social behaviour of a child.
- Social Psychology: Mrs. Joshi examined the effect of peer pressure on a person’s dressing style.
- Cognitive Psychology: Mr. Dsouza studied factors influencing the attention span of students during lectures.
- Experimental Psychology: Mr. Iyer studied the reactions of individuals in a laboratory to disgusting events.
- Abnormal Psychology: Mrs. Ajmera conducted a study on the genetic factors influencing depression.
Activity 4. (Textbook Page No. 15)
Can you think of at least one problem that educational psychologists can find solutions to, concerning the following areas?
- Behaviour of the student
- Teaching methods
- Teacher’s behaviour in the class
- Why do students bunk lectures?
- Do interactions with students during lectures improve learning outcomes?
- Is it possible to use reward and punishment techniques to motivate students?
Activity 6. (Textbook Page No. 16)
Can you think of at least one problem that a counselling psychologist can find solutions to, concerning the following areas?
- Adjusting with peers
- Adjusting with parents and siblings
- Making decisions about a career
- How conflict with peers affects an individual’s mood?
- How generation gap may lead to a difference of opinion?
- How to choose a career that matches one’s interests and aptitude?
Activity 8. (Textbook Page No. 16)
Think of at least one problem that a sports psychologist can find solutions to, concerning the following areas.
- Improving team spirit
- Emotional management
- Improving self-confidence
- How to build healthy relations with team members?
- How to remain calm and composed even after a failure?
- How to believe in one’s capabilities during challenging tournaments?
Activity 9. (Textbook Page No. 17)
- Talk to your parents/teachers and enlist the factors that give them satisfaction at their work.
- While buying something from the market, which factors affect your desires? Enlist these factors that influence your choice. For example advertisements, brands, etc.
- Some of the factors that are associated with job satisfaction are the extent to which one enjoys his work, relation with superiors and colleagues, rate of remuneration and other incentives as well as the scope of growth in the future.
- Some of the factors that influence consumer choices are quality of the product, price of the product, price of substitute and complementary products, the income of a person, latest trends, personal choices, habits, and opinions of significant others.