Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 15 India During Mughal Period Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 15 India During Mughal Period
1A. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.
Mughal Emperor Babur was born in ___________
Mughal Emperor Humayun was defeated by ___________
(a) Ibrahim Lodi
(b) Shershah Sur
(b) Shershah Sur
Akbarnama was written by ___________
(a) Mohammad Qasim
(b) Abul Fazl
(c) Mirza Hyder
(b) Abul Fazl
1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.
|Set ‘A’||Set ‘B’|
|(1) Khafi Khan||Akbarnama|
|(2) Malik Muhammad Jayasi||Padmavat|
|(3) Sant Kabir||Doha|
|(4) Mirza Hyder||Tarikh-i-Rashidi|
(1) Khafi Khan – Tarikh-i-Khafikhan
1C. Write the names.
He defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
She successfully resisted the attack of Akbar and saved the Nizamshahi kingdom.
2. Explain the statements with reasons.
The Rajput rulers united against Babur.
- The grand army of Ibrahim Lodi could not survive in front of Babur in the battle of Panipat.
- Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi on the strength of configuration skills, strong artillery, a system of secret intelligence, and strong leadership. This was a direct threat to the Rajputs in Rajasthan.
- Rajputs were brave warriors and proud advocates of their religion.
- Babur established his rule in Delhi.
- The Rajput kings came together under the leadership of Mewar King Rana Sangha to counter him.
- Babur defeated the Rajputs in the Battle of Khanwa.
Shershah Sur was well-known for his ideal administration.
- Humayun was deprived of the kingdom due to the defeat at the hands of Shershah Sur of Bihar.
- Shershah Sur made some reforms in the administrative setup. He also made changes in the land revenue system.
- He erected the hierarchical setup of administrative units and officers.
- He brought together the Afghan sardars scattered in North India and established Afghan rule.
- The descendants of Shershah were not efficient. Thus, his power declined.
Emperor Akbar strengthened the foundation of his rule in India.
- After Humayun, his son Akbar ascended the throne.
- He proved to be the greatest Mughal Emperor because of his qualities such as high intelligence, tolerance, firmness, and courage.
- The kingdom established by Babur was transformed into a great empire by Akbar.
- He established his rule from Kabul to Bengal and Kashmir to Varhad-Khandesh.
- He entered into political matrimonial relations with the Rajputs in order to strengthen his kingdom.
- He erected an efficient administrative setup.
Mughal art declined during the period of Aurangzeb.
- During the period of Aurangzeb, the royal patronage of the art of painting was withdrawn.
- Aurangzeb was a fanatic ruler. Under Aurangzeb’s rule, art declined, since he had banned all art forms.
- The artists were forced to seek patronage elsewhere under various rulers in Rajasthan, Bundelkhand, Gujarat, and the provinces of the Himalayan ranges.
- New local styles of paintings emerged there.
3. Write short notes.
- The reign of the three emperors, Akbar, Jahangir, and Shahjahan was a period of peace, order, and prosperity. Arts flourish when there is stability.
- A new era began in the field of art and architecture.
- The etched designs on the marble walls of mosques, tombs, and palaces are evidence of the highly advanced styles of art and architecture.
- The influence of the Persian style of architecture was more prominent till Akbar’s period.
- In the later period, it evolved by absorbing Indian elements, which came to be known as the Indo-Islamic style of architecture.
- During the period of Akbar and Jahangir, the art of ivory carving received royal patronage.
- The Mughal paintings originated from the Persian styles of painting.
- There are miniature paintings of Persian style in the manuscript of ‘Baburnama’. The art of painting received encouragement during the period of Akbar. He appointed skilled painters in his court.
- During the period of Jahangir, paintings were done based on the court and hunting scenes. The paintings of this period were done in a more realistic style, which is vibrant and attractive. These paintings, portray birds and animals, cloud formations, human figures, and natural scenery.
- During the Mughal period, the art of music seems to have received royal patronage.
- During the Mughal period, excellent literature was created in the Persian language.
- Babur himself knew Persian and Turkish languages. His autobiography known as ‘Baburnama’ is well known.
- Another important text is ‘Tarikh-i-Rashidi’ by Mirza Hyder written during the period of Humayun.
- Akbar got many Sanskrit texts translated in Persian which includes ‘Rajatarangini’, ‘Lilavati’, ‘Ramayana’, ‘Mahabharata’, ‘Harivamsh’ and ‘Panchatantra’. Abul Fazal wrote the famous ‘Akbarnama’ and ‘Ain-i- Akbari’.
- Dara Shukoh, the son of Shahjahan, was a Sanskrit scholar. He translated the text of several Upanishads texts in the Persian language from Sanskrit.
- During the Mughal period, a number of biographical, historical texts were written. Among them Khafi Khan’s ‘Tarikhi- Khafikhan’ is well-known.
- During the Mughal period, a number of literary works of high quality were created in local north Indian dialects. To mention a few, ‘Ramacharitamanas’ written by Goswami Tulsidas, the compositions of Surdas and Meerabai, Padmavat composed by Malik Muhammad Jaysi, dohas of Saint Kabir.
4. Answer the following questions in detail.
During the Mughal period, what were the changes made in the revenue system?
- Akbar made further reforms in the revenue system implemented by Shershah Sur.
- This bought a certain discipline in the Mughal revenue system.
- He graded the cultivable land based on the systematic land survey.
- The land was classified into four types on the basis of annual yield, i.e. fertile (supik), infertile (napik), irrigated (bagayat), and dry crop (jirayat) land.
- Individual land holdings of farmers were registered.
- An average of the annual yield in the last ten years was calculated and one-third of this average yield was fixed as the base for the tax to be paid.
- The tax, thus fixed, was applicable for the span of ten years. This offered considerable respite to farmers for a span of ten years.
- Documents are known as ‘Kabulayat’ and ‘Patta’ were prepared by the farmers after the fixing of the tax rate. The tax was collected in cash or in kind.
Elaborate on the features of Mughal architecture.
- The architectural style during the Sultanate period had great implements on strength and simplicity.
- But during the Mughal period, the focus shifted to aesthetics.
- During the period of Babur, the Kabulbag mosque at Panipat and Jama Masjid at Sambhal in Uttar Pradesh were built in Persian style.
- The memorial built during the period of Shershah Sur at Sahastram (Bihar) is an excellent example of the Indo-Islamic style of architecture.
- The Purana Qila was built by Shershah in Delhi. The city of Fatehpur Sikri was set up during Akbar’s period.
- Later the buildings like Jama Masjid, Buland Darwaza were built in Fatehpur-Sikri.
- Akbar built important forts like Agra fort, Lahore fort, Allahabad fort, and Attock fort.
- The use of Red stone and marble, huge domes, arches were the salient features of the architecture of this period.
- The period of Shahjahan was the most glorious period of Mughal architecture.
- ‘Diwan-i-Aam’ and ‘Diwan-i-Khaas’ in Red fort, ‘Jama masjid’, ‘Moti Masjid’, were built during his period.
- The ‘Taj Mahal’ of Agra built by him is incomparable and immortal.
- Later, Mughal architecture began to decline.
Collect information about the expansion of Mughal rule by Emperor Akbar and the contemporary cities.
- Akbar was an Imperialist.
- The first conquest of Akbar was that of Malwa.
- His empire extended from Kabul in the west to Bengal in the east and from Kashmir in the north to Vindhyas in the south.
- Had consolidated the whole of north India under his administration.
- The following is the link for additional information: https://www.historydiscussion.net