Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Self-driving cars function on ………………… intelligence.
(a) artificial
(b) general
(c) alternate
Answer:
(a) artificial

Question 2.
…………………. revised the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scales in 1916.
(a) Terman
(b) Spearman
(c) Stern
Answer:
(a) Terman

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Raj is generally impatient, apathetic and restless. He exhibits ……………… emotional intelligence.
(a) high
(b) satisfactory
(c) low
Answer:
(c) low

Question 4.
Army Alpha is a ……………….. test of intelligences.
(a) verbal-individual
(b) verbal-group
(c) performance-group
Answer:
(b) verbal-group

Question 5.
Toxic behaviour indicates a low level of ……………….. intelligence.
(a) social
(b) cognitive
(c) artificial
Answer:
(a) social

Question 6.
If MA is greater than CA then the child has ………………. intelligence.
(a) average
(b) below average
(c) above average
Answer:
(c) above average

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 7.
According to ……………….., intelligence is composed of seven primary mental abilities.
(a) Thorndike
(b) Gardner
(c) Thurstone
Answer:
(c) Thurstone

Match the pairs.

Group A Group B
(1) Alfred Binet (a) concept of IQ
(2) Lewis Terman (b) concept of emotional intelligence
(3) William Stern (c) concept of multiple intelligence
(4) Mayer and Salovey (d) concept of Mental Age
(5) Howard Gardner (e) Two Factor Theory of intelligence
(6) Charles Spearman (f) Stanford-Binet Scale

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Alfred Binet (d) concept of Mental Age
(2) Lewis Terman (f) Stanford-Binet Scale
(3) William Stern (a) concept of IQ
(4) Mayer and Salovey (b) concept of emotional intelligence
(5) Howard Gardner (c) concept of multiple intelligence
(6) Charles Spearman (e) Two Factor Theory of intelligence

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Paper pencil tests are non-verbal tests of intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
According to the modern notion of intelligence, distinct types of intelligences exist.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
If MA = CA, then the individual has average intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Performance tests are more efficient to measure higher mental abilities.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Verbal tests are culture free tests.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Artificial Intelligence can take decisions independently.
Answer:
False

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What type of tests is Army Beta test?
Answer:
Army Beta test is a group non-verbal test.

Question 2.
What was the classical notion of intelligence?
Answer:
The classical notion of intelligence explains it as an unitary ability and only the functions of intelligence may take different forms.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Which two tests were developed in 1917 for recruitment of soldiers?
Answer:
Army Alpha test and Army Beta test were the two tests developed in 1917 for recruitment of soldiers during First World War.

Question 4.
What is meant by Social Intelligence?
Answer:
According to Karl Albrecht, “Social intelligence is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself’.

Question 5.
What are the two factors of intelligence according to Charles Spearman?
Answer:
According to Charles Spearman the factors of intelligence are General factor and Specific factor.

Question 6.
What are the two types of intelligence according to Cattell and Horn?
Answer:
According to Cattell and Horn the two types of intelligence are Fluid intelligence and Crystallized intelligence.

Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “An ability to think on an abstract level.” David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘The aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
The two main perspectives on intelligence are-

  1. Intelligence as a single, general ability
  2. Intelligence as a set of multiple abilities

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Multiple Intelligences
Answer:
The modern view of intelligence as explained by psychologists like Charles Spearman (Two Factor Theory), E. L. Thorndike, Louis Thurstone (7 Primary Mental Abilities) Howard Gardner, etc. states that multiple abilities are involved in intelligence. They believe that distinct types of intelligences exist. Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligence asserted that there are nine independent types of intelligence that grow and develop differently in different people, depending upon the individual’s heredity characteristics or environmental experiences for e.g., linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, etc.
These nine types of intelligences are-

  1. Linguistic intelligence,
  2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
  3. Spatial intelligence
  4. Musical intelligence
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
  6. Interpersonal intelligence
  7. Intra-personal intelligence
  8. Naturalistic intelligence and
  9. Existential intelligence.

Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
What is the application of tests of intelligences.
Answer:
Intelligence tests are of great significance today.

  1. Effective Schooling – On the basis of intelligence test scores, teachers can classify students into intellectual categories and devise special instructional programmes suited to their mental development.
  2. Aids Mental Health Personnel – Intelligence tests are helpful to Mental Health personnel such as psychologists etc., for diagnosis purposes and therapy.
  3. Effective Parenting – Parents can provide appropriate educational facilities to their children based on their IQ scores.
  4. Career Counselling – Scores obtained on intelligence tests help the student to select the right educational options/ courses.
  5. Vocational Counselling – Individuals can choose a suitable career and achieve job satisfaction when they make a realistic choice a vocation based on IQ scores.

Question 2.
Write the characteristics of people with high emotional intelligence.
Answer:
The term emotional intelligence was used for the first time by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. It is defined as ‘the ability to perceive and monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.’ Persons with high emotional intelligence have the following characteristics:

  1. They tend to be patient and emotionally stable.
  2. They tend to be satisfied, enthusiastic and happy.
  3. They tend to show independence and optimism.
  4. They exhibit the ability to understand and regulate emotions of themselves and others.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Write the applications of Artificial Intelligence.
Answer:
The term Artificial intelligence was suggested by John McCarthy. Artificial intelligence is an innovation created by human intelligence. It refers to enabling software programmes and computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence.

Today, Artificial Intelligence is used on a large scale to perform various daily routine tasks as well as to solve various critical problems. For example, it is used for:

  1. Speech recognition
  2. Natural language processing
  3. Spam filtering from emails
  4. Medical diagnosing
  5. Detecting frauds in economic transactions
  6. Weather forecasting, etc.

Question 4.
Explain E.L. Thorndike’s view about intelligence.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.
Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
E. L. Thorndike put forth three independent abilities that can be called intelligence.

  1. Abstract intelligence – It refers to the ability to engage in verbal and symbolic thinking.
  2. Social intelligence – It refers to the ability to communicate with people, understand and perform social relations.
  3. Concrete (mechanical) intelligence – It refers to the ability to effectively control one’s body and to manipulate objects.

Question 5.
Explain Cattell and Horn’s theory of intelligence.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.
Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
Raymond Cattell with his student John Horn proposed a theory of intelligence explaining two types of intelligence viz.

  1. Fluid intelligence is dependent on neurological development and it is relatively free from the influences of learning and experiences.
  2. Crystallized intelligence is not dependent on one’s neurological development and it is a function of one’s educational attainment, acquired experiences and stock of knowledge.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words.

Question 1.
Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.’
The two main perspectives on intelligence are-
(i) Intelligence as a single, general ability – The classical notion of intelligence explains it as an unitary ability and only the functions of intelligence may take different forms. Psychologists like Alfred Binet, David Wechsler, William Stern and Lewis Terman believed that intelligence is a single index of cognitive abilities.

(ii) Intelligence as a set of multiple abilities – The modern view of intelligence as explained by psychologists like Charles Spearman, E.L. Thorndike, Howard Gardner, etc., states that multiple abilities are involved in intelligence.

Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligence asserted that there are nine independent types of intelligence that grow and develop differently in different people, depending upon the individuals heredity characteristics or environmental experiences. These nine types of intelligences are-

  1. Linguistic intelligence
  2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
  3. Spatial intelligence
  4. Musical intelligence
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
  6. Interpersonal intelligence and
  7. Intra-personal intelligence
  8. Naturalistic intelligence and
  9. Existential intelligence

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