Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

1A. Choose the correct alternative and write complete sentences.

Question 1.
There existed ___________ Mahajanapadas in ancient India.
(a) Fourteen
(b) Fifteen
(c) Sixteen
(d) Seventeen
Answer:
(c) Sixteen

Question 2.
The empire of ___________ became strong during the struggle of four Mahajanapadas.
(a) Kasi
(b) Kosala
(c) Avanti
(d) Magadha
Answer:
(d) Magadha

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 3.
The kingdom of Magadha acquired the form of an ___________
(a) Empire
(b) State
(c) Country
(d) District
Answer:
(a) Empire

Question 4.
The concept of ___________ occurs in the ancient literature on Indian polity.
(a) Raja
(b) Maharaja
(c) Chakravarti
(d) Maharajadhiraj
Answer:
(c) Chakravarti

Question 5.
___________ was the first Chakravarti Emperor.
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Bimbisara
(c) Mahapadma
(d) Bindusara
Answer:
(a) Chandragupta Maurya

Question 6.
In the 6th century BCE, the ___________ dynasty ruled over Magadha.
(a) Maurya
(b) Gupta
(c) Haryanka
(d) Sunga
Answer:
(c) Haryanka

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 7.
The Haryanka dynasty is mentioned in the ___________
(a) Mahabharata
(b) Ramayana
(c) Upanishads
(d) Sangam literature
Answer:
(a) Mahabharata

Question 8.
___________ was the first well-known king of the Haryanka dynasty.
(a) Mahapadma
(b) Bimbisara
(c) Ajatashatru
(d) Chandragupta Maurya
Answer:
(b) Bimbisara

Question 9.
Pataligrama came to be known as ___________
(a) Pataliputra
(b) Magadha
(c) Kasi
(d) Kosala
Answer:
(a) Pataliputra

Question 10.
___________ was the founder of the Nanda dynasty.
(a) Shishunaga
(b) Ashoka
(c) Ajatashatru
(d) Mahapadma
Answer:
(d) Mahapadma

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 11.
___________ was the last king of the Mauryan dynasty.
(a) Asoka
(b) Pushyamitra
(c) Brihadratha
(d) Dhanananda
Answer:
(c) Brihadratha

Question 12.
The great drama in Sanskrit literature Swapnavasavadatta was written by ___________
(a) Kautilya
(b) Bharat
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Bhasa
Answer:
(d) Bhasa

1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.

Question 1.

Set ‘A’ Set ‘B’
(a) In the text of Mahavamsa, Chandragupta is referred as The Emperor of Jambudvipa
(b) Ashoka called himself as Devanampiya Piyadasi
(c) Centre of Higher education Taxila
(d) Tax paid by the people in the form of Physical Labour Bhag

Answer:
(d) Tax paid by the people in the form of Physical Labour – Vishti

Question 2.

Set ‘A’ Set ‘B’
(a) Antiochus II Theos Syria
(b) Ptolemy II Philadelphus Egypt
(c) Antigonus Gonatus Macedonia
(d) Magas (Epirus) Cyrene

Answer:
(d) Magas – Cyrene

1C. Find the odd one out.

Question 1.
Famous texts of Jain literature
(a) Dashavaikalika
(b) Tipitaka
(c) Upasakadashanga
(d) Acharanga Sutra
Answer:
(b) Tipitaka

Question 2.
Prakrit languages
(a) Pali
(b) Ardhamagadhi
(c) Shaurseni
(d) Sanskrit
Answer:
(d) Sanskrit

Question 3.
Bimbisara relations with royal houses
(a) Kosala
(b) Lichchhavi
(d) Madra
(c) Patali
Answer:
(c) Patali

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 4.
Contemporary kings from the western world
(a) Maurya
(b) Ptolemy II Philadelphus
(c) Antigonus Gonatus
(d) Alexander of Epirus
Answer:
(a) Maurya

2A. Write the names of historical places, persons, and events.

Question 1.
First Buddhist Council
Answer:
Rajagriha

Question 2.
Revenue Minister in the Arthashastra
Answer:
Samaharta

Question 3.
The technique of mirror polish of the stone during the Mauryan period
Answer:
Mauryan polish

Question 4.
National Emblem of India
Answer:
Ashokan pillar

2B. Choose the correct reason and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
Rise of Magadha –
(a) Fertile and rich land
(b) Strong fort
(c) King’s position
(d) Political stability
Answer:
(a) Fertile and rich land

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 2.
Ashoka’s Victory at Kalinga proved a turning point in the history as well as the life of Ashoka.
Reasons ___________
(a) Ambition of Ashoka
(b) Influence of Buddhism
(c) Great loss of human life
(d) Weak rules of Kalinga
Answer:
(c) Great loss of human life

2C. Write the correct chronological order.

Question 1.
(a) Maurya dynasty
(b) Nanda dynasty
(c) Haryanka dynasty
(d) Shishunaga dynasty
Answer:
(a) Haryanka dynasty
(b) Shishunaga dynasty
(c) Nanda dynasty
(d) Maurya dynasty

Question 2.
(a) Magas of Cyrene and Alexander of Epirus
(b) Ptolemy II, Philadelphus of Egypt
(c) Antigonus Gonatus of Macedonia
(d) Antiochus II, Theos of Syria.
Answer:
(a) Antiochus II, Theos of Syria.
(b) Ptolemy II, Philadelphus of Egypt
(c) Antigonus Gonatus of Macedonia
(d) Magas of Cyrene and Alexander of Epirus

3. Observe the map/picture on page 58 of your textbook and answer the questions based on it.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 3

Question 1.
Name some locations of Ashoka’s pillar.
Answer:
Locations of Ashoka’s pillars is Mansehra, Taxila, Kalsi, Toshali, Maski, Kupaga, etc.

Question 2.
Name some locations of Ashoka’s stone inscriptions.
Answer:
The location of Ashoka’s stone inscriptions is Topra, Meerut, Nigliva, Rummindei, Lauruja Nandangarh, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 3.
Name the mountain mentioned in a map.
Answer:
The mountain mentioned on the map is Hindukush Mountains.

4. Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q1.1

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q2.1

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period 4 Q3.1

5. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Mauryan Polish
Answer:

  • During the Mauryan period, it appears that the artists had acquired the skill of cutting and carving the stone.
  • In both, the skill of specific expressions of art and the technique of mirror polish of the stone are seen.
  • This is known as ‘Mauryan Polish’.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 2.
Chakravarti
Answer:

  • The concept of ‘Chakravarti’ occurs in the literature of ancient Indian polity.
  • The sovereign ruler whose chariot could roll in all four directions without any obstruction was known as Chakravarti.
  • It was expected that his rule should be ethical and for the welfare of the state.
  • During his tenure, the wheel of ‘Ruta’ remains intact.
  • His rule is on an extended territory. Chandragupta Maurya was the first Chakravarti Emperor.

6. Explain the following Statements with reasons.

Question 1.
Magadha emerged as a powerful kingdom in the 6th century B.C.E.
Answer:

  • Magadha was an important kingdom among the mahajanapadas that existed in ancient India.
  • Fertile and rich land, perennial rivers, excellent facilities of navigation, availability of commercial markets, etc., were the reasons for the rise of Magadha as an empire.
  • In the 6th century BCE, the Haryanka dynasty ruled over Magadha.
  • Thus, Magadha emerged as a powerful kingdom in the 6th century B.C.E.

Question 2.
Bimbisara established matrimonial relations with many royal houses.
Answer:

  • Bimbisara started building the foundation of the Magadha Empire.
  • He attacked the neighbouring kingdom of Anga and conquered it.
  • This victory increased the power of Magadha.
  • Bimbisara established matrimonial relations with many royal houses such as Kosala, Lichchhavi, Videh, Madra to support his expansionist policy.
  • At the foot of the fort of Girivraja, he established the new capital of Rajgriha.

Question 3.
Ashoka erected many pillars.
Answer:

  • The destruction caused by the Kalinga war brought about a great change in the mind of Ashoka.
  • Great loss of human life diverted Ashoka’s mind towards the non-violent, peaceful Buddhist religion.
  • So, Ashoka erected many pillars to spread the religious ideals propagated by him.

7. State your opinion.

Question 1.
Literature of the Mauryan period reflects the thought process of the people.
Answer:

  • Literature of the Mauryan period not only reflects the thought process of the people but also the political, social, economic, and religious conditions of the period.
  • During the Mauryan period along with literature in the Sanskrit language, Pali and Ardhamagadhi were also used.
  • Jain and Buddhist Literature were created in the Prakrit language. The Prakrit language includes Pali, Ardhamagadhi, Shaurseni, Maharashtri, etc.
  • Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, Bhasa’s Swapnavasavadattam, Kautilya’s Arthashastra were some of the important works of this period.
  • Along with Sanskrit literature, many texts were written in the Prakrit language. The orders of Asoka inscribed on rocks and pillars are in Prakrit.
  • The famous Buddhist ‘Tipitakas’ were edited during this period. Abhidhammapitaka was composed after the 3rd Buddhist council.
  • Jam literature too flourished during this period for e.g., texts like ‘Dashavaikalika’, Upasakadashanga Bhagvati Sutra were composed during this period.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 2.
The Mauryan period has multiple dimensions.
Answer:

  • The Mauryan period obtained historical significance due to its multiple dimensions.
  • After the death of Ashoka, the centralized administration grew weak and the empire disintegrated into small kingdoms.
  • There was development in almost all aspects of human life.
  • Thus, The Mauryan period has multiple dimensions.

8. Answers the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Write in detail on the Rise of Magadha.
Answer:

  • Magadha was an important kingdom among the Mahajanapadas Fertile land, perennial rivers, excellent facilities of navigation availability of commercial markets, etc were the reasons for the rise of Magadha as an empire.
  • The Haryanka dynasty ruled over Magadha in the 6th century BCE. Bimbisara was the first well-known king.
  • His father Mahapadma established the first capital at Magadha.
  • Bimbisara laid the foundation of the Magadha empire. Bimbisara made Rajagriha, the new capital.
  • Ajatashatru, son of Bimbisara became the next king and adopted the expansionist policy of his father, Bimbisara.
  • He expanded the Magadha kingdom up to the foot of the Vindhya ranges. Ajatashatru built a small fort on the bank of Ganga at acquired Pataligrama which later on became a center of trade for local commodities.
  • Pataliputra became the capital of the Mauryan Empire.
    Political stability as well as other factors were responsible for the strengthening of Magadha as an Empire.
  • The political ambitions of the rulers combined with wealth and prospering trade were the reasons for the development of Magadha’s rule and the establishment of a huge empire.

Question 2.
Write a note on Ashoka’s effort to spread Buddhism.
Answer:

  • Ashoka adopted his ancestor’s policy of Digvijaya and expansion of the kingdom.
  • He attacked Kalinga and conquered it.
  • Ashoka’s victory proved to be a turning point in history as well as in the life of Ashoka. There was a great loss of human life.
  • The destruction caused due to the Kalinga war brought about a great change in the mind of Ashoka.
  • He adopted a non-violent peaceful attitude. The desire of Digvijaya was replaced by Dhammavijaya.
  • For the implementation of Dhammavijaya, he introduced new policies, for example, the appointment of ‘Dharmamahamatras’ ban on intoxicating drinks, guiding principles regarding code of conduct, etc.
  • He also sent monks to various countries for the spread of Buddhism.

Question 3.
Write a note on the expansion of the Mauryan Empire in Maharashtra.
Answer:

  • The expansion of the Mauryan Empire in Maharashtra took place from 321 BCE to 181 BCE.
  • The Maurya’s must-have entered Sopara from Gujarat. Sopara and Chaul were prosperous trade centers and learning centers of Buddhism.
  • Bhagvanlal Indraji excavated the Stupa at Sopara which is known as ‘Baruda Rajacha kot’.
  • In this excavation, the fragments of the rock edict of Ashoka were found.
  • It is the 8th rock edict among the 14 edicts of Ashoka.
  • The 9th rock edict was found in the Bhuigaon village.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

9. Answers the following questions with the help of given points.

Question 1.
Explain the role of the following:
(a) Trade
(b) Literature
(c) Art and Architecture
(d) Social life
Answer:
(a) Trade:

  • Due to a well-organized taxation system, there was an increase in revenue. Various kinds of taxes were levied, for e.g., ‘Bali’ was a tax to be given in the scale of land under cultivation, ‘Bhag’ was a share from the tax on production.
  • Agricultural land and the tax acquired from agricultural production were the basic foundation of the administrative system.
  • Industries gained momentum during this period for e.g., cloth industry, metallurgy, carpentry, etc.
  • The prosperous agriculture and flourishing industries led to a flourishing internal and foreign trade.
  • There was import and export trade and for the protection of the trading community, the government had appointed officers like Chorarajjuka and Seemaswami.

(b) Literature:

  • During the Mauryan period, along with literature in Sanskrit, the use of Pali and Ardhamagadhi literature in the Prakrit language is also seen.
  • For the spread of Jainism and Buddhism literature was created in the Prakrit language.
  • The world-famous work of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi was composed in this period.
  • Bhasa one of the greatest dramatists of Sanskrit literature flourished during this period. The most important work of this period is texts Kautilya’s Arthashastra
  • The orders of Ashoka are inscribed on the rocks and pillars in the Prakrit language.
  • The famous texts of Buddhist literature Tipitakas were edited during this period. Jain texts like Dashavaikalika, Upasakadashanga Acharanga Sutra Bhagvati Sutra, etc., were composed during this period.

(c) Art and Architecture:

  • Mauryan art is the beginning of ancient Indian architecture and sculptural art.
  • It appears that the artists had acquired the skill of cutting and carving the stone.
  • The technique of mirror polish of stone known as ‘Mauryan Polish’ was acquired during this period.
  • During this period stone statues of Yaksha and Yakshi were found, for e.g., the statue of Chauri bearer of Didarganj.
  • The pillars erected by Emperor Ashoka and the sculpture on them are excellent examples of Mauryan sculpture, the beginning of rock-cut caves.

(d) Social life:

  • Megasthenes mentions the seven classes of Indian society based on their professions.
  • Life was prosperous and happy.
  • The class of entertainers is mentioned. Chariot and horse racing wrestling as well as dance and singing competition were the popular means of entertainment.
  • The system of education during the Vedic period continued Cities of Taxila, Kashi, Ayodhya, etc became great centers of higher education and art.
  • Female education suffered but Kautilya’s Arthashastra mentions that women were given certain rights.
  • Women had complete control over Stridhana. The Mauryan period had multiple dimensions.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter 8 India During Mauryan Period

Question 2.
Write about the following:
(a) Nanda Dynasty
(b) Mauryan Empire
Answer:
(a) Nanda Dynasty:

  • The Nanda dynasty is mentioned in the Puranas. The Meghan empire established by Ajatashatru was further expanded by Mahapadma Nanda.
  • According to some scholars, the Nanda rule had spread up to Nanded in the South, whereas some scholars think that it was extended up to Mysore.
  • On this basis, it can be said that Mahapadma Nanda was the first great emperor of India. Dhana Nanda was the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty.
  • During his period, the state treasury was enormously rich. His military was also very huge. It consisted of 2,00,000 infantry, 60,000 cavalry, 6000 elephants and 2000 chariots.

(b) Mauryan Empire:

  • Mauryan Empire was the first well-organized and strongly controlled empire in the history of India.
  • Religious texts and other literature, inscriptions, coins, sculptures, etc. are the sources that help us to clearly understand the political, social, economic, and religious conditions of this period.
  • The Mauryan empire had spread on a large region of the Indian sub-continent and was controlled by a central power.
  • The Mauryan rule brought about the consolidation of the political system.

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